Attempts have been made to explain these various effects by the electron theory.4 Thermo-electric Quality.-The earliest observations of the effect of magnetization upon thermo-electric power were those of W.
For those orbits whose projection upon a plane perpendicular to the field is righthanded, the period of revolution will be accelerated by the field (since the electron current is negative), and the magnetic moment consequently increased; for those which are left-handed, the period will be retarded and the moment diminished.
One or more of the electrons may be detached from the system by a finite force, the number so detachable depending on the valency of the atom; if the atom loses an electron, it becomes positively electrified; if it receives additional electrons, it is negatively electrified.
If S is the area of the orbit described in time T by an electron of charge e, the moment of the equivalent magnet is M = eST; and the change in the value of M due to an external field H is shown to be OM = - He'S/47rm, m being the mass of the electron.
Thomson in 1897 and 1898 4 resulted in the establishment of the electron theory, which has already effected developments of an almost revolutionary character in more than one branch of science.
Lorentz, on the general lines suggested by the electron-theory of molecular constitution.
Schuster and others, but first fully developed with astonishing results including the experimental discovery of the free electron by J.
The equations finally arrived at are DX2(A2_ 2) (x2_ A2m)2+g2A2 ' DgA3 (A A l m) 2 +g 2 A2 ' where is the wave-length in free ether of light whose refractive index is n, and A m the wave-length of light of the same period as the electron, is a coefficient of absorption, and D and g are constants.
The view that visible radiation must be excited by the impact of such an electron is therefore quite consistent with the view that there is no essential difference between the excitement due to chemical or electrical action and that resulting from a sufficient increase of temperature.
The difficulty that a number of spectroscopic lines seem to involve at least an equal number of electrons may be got over by imagining that the atom may present several positions of equilibrium to the electron, which it may occupy in turn.
Leaving the consideration of radical changes of a vibrating system out of account for the present, the minor differences which have been observed in the appearances of spectra under different sparking conditions are probably to a large extent due to differences in the quantities of material examined, though temperature must alter the violence of the impact and there is a possible effect due to a difference in the impact according as the vibrating system collides with an electron or with a body of atomic dimensions.
The fact that in certain simple cases where a line when looked at equatorially splits into a triplet, the ratio of the charge to the mass is found by Lorentz's theory to be equal to that observed in the carrier of the kathode ray, shows that in these cases the electron moves as an independent body and is not linked in its motion to other electrons.
The numerical relations existing between the trunk series and the branch series make it somewhat difficult to believe that they belong to different vibrating systems. But while we should undoubtedly hesitate on this ground to adopt Fredenhagen's 3 view that the two branch series belong to the element itself and the trunk series to a process of oxidation, we cannot press the argument against the view of Lenard, because the addition or subtraction of an electron introduces two vibrating systems which are still connected with each other and some numerical relationship is probable.
He developed a great research laboratory of experimental physics, attracting numerous workers from many countries and colonies; advances were made in the investigation of the conduction of electricity through gases, in the determination of the charge and mass of the electron and in the development of analysis by means of positive rays.
As a single electron charged negatively; these rays can penetrate sheets of aluminium, glass, &c., several millimetres thick; and (3) the 'y rays - which are non-electrified radiations characterized by a high penetrating power, i% surviving after traversing 7 cm.
This ultimate unit of electric quantity Professor Johnstone Stoney called an electron.'
The mass of the electron or corpuscle is 7 0 X1028 gramme and its diameter is 3 X I 013 centimetre.
Lorentz, " The Electron Theory," Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, 1905, 26, p. 584; or Science Abstracts, 1905, 8, A, p. 603.
Each electron is a point-charge of negative electricity equal to 3.9 X Io 1 ° of an electrostatic unit or to.
Hence the mass of an electron is y ff l iT uth of that of a hydrogen atom.
Trans., 1894, 185; 1895, 186; 1897, 190), and subsequently in his book Aether and Matter (1900), a remarkable hypothesis of the structure of the electron or corpuscle, which he regards as simply a strain centre in the aether or electromagnetic medium, a chemical atom being a collection of positive and negative electrons or strain centres in stable orbital motion round their common centre of mass (see Aether).
Electric waves are produced wherever electrons are accelerated or retarded, that is, whenever the velocity of an electron is changed or accelerated positively or negatively.
Kaufmann, " The Developments of the Electron Idea."
Fournier d'Albe, The Electron Theory (London, 1906); H.
This was little more than a small platform of green schist with a sacred tree and an altar, and perhaps later a wooden icon (image), the whole enclosed in a temenos: but, as is proved by a great treasure of objects in precious and other metals, ivory, bone, crystal, paste, glass, terra-cotta and other materials, found in 1904-1905, partly within the platform on which the cult-statue stood and partly outside, in the lowest stratum of deposit, this early shrine was presently enriched by Greeks with many and splendid offerings of Hellenic workmanship. A large number of electron coins, found among these offerings, and in style the earliest of their class known, combine with other evidence to date the whole treasure to a period considerably anterior to the reign of Croesus.
If Jenner had had e-mail, Pasteur an electron microscope, Salk a genetic sequencer.
When a current passes from an electrolyte to a metal, the electron must be detached from the atom it was accompanying and chemical action be manifested at the electrode.