Now, we know that the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed is proportional to the whole amount of electricity which passed through the circuit, and the product of this by the electromotive force of the battery is the work done by the latter, so that in this case also Joule showed that the heat generated was proportional to the work done.
If the current drive an electromagnetic engine, the reaction of the engine will produce an electromotive force opposing the current.
Von Jacobi showed that for a given electromotive force in the battery the horse-power is greatest when the current is reduced to one-half of what it would be if the engine were at rest.
The electromotive force of each cell is 2.14 volts, and the resistance 4.
Ohms. The Leclanche is of the ordinary type, and each cell has an electromotive force of I 64 volts and a resistance of 3 to 5 ohms (according to the size of the complete cell, of which there are three sizes in use).
The idea was that variations of the primary current would create electromotive force in the secondary circuit which would act through the air condenser formed by the two plates.
If we consider the lines of magnetic force in the neighbourhood of the receiving antenna wire we shall see that they move across it, and thus create in it an electromotive force which acts upon the coherer or other sensitive device associated with it.
The electric waves coming through space from the sending station strike against the receiving antenna and set up in it high frequency alternating electromotive forces.
This device was converted into an electric wave detector as follows :-The mercury-steel junction was acted upon by the electromotive force of a shunted single cell and a siphon recorder was inserted in series.
On the other hand, if a closed oscillation circuit is constructed having capacity and considerable inductance, then oscillations can be set up in it by very small periodic electromotive forces provided these have a frequency exactly agreeing with that of the condenser circuit.
The electromotive force of Volta's simple cell falls off rapidly when the cell is used, and this phenomenon was shown to be due to the accumulation at the metal plates of the products of chemical changes in the cell itself.
This reverse electromotive force of polarization is produced in all electrolytes when the passage of the current changes the nature of the electrodes.
In batteries which use acids as the electrolyte, a film of hydrogen tends to be deposited on the copper or platinum electrode; but, to obtain a constant electromotive force, several means were soon devised of preventing the formation of the film.
Since the electric forces are active throughout the whole solution, all the ions must come under its influence and therefore move, but their separation from the electrodes is determined by the electromotive force needed to liberate them.
Thus, as long as every ion of the solution is present in the layer of liquid next the electrode, the one which responds to the least electromotive force will alone be set free.
The conductivity gives us the amount of electricity conveyed per second under a definite electromotive force.
The concentration is known, and the conductivity can be measured experimentally; thus the average velocity with which the ions move past each other under the existent electromotive force can be estimated.
Hence the absolute velocities of the two ions can be determined, and we can calculate the actual speed with which a certain ion moves through a given liquid under the action of a given potential gradient or electromotive force.
In accordance with the principles of energetics, any change which involves a decrease in the total available energy of the system will tend to occur, and thus the necessary and sufficient condition for the production of electromotive force is that the available energy of the system should decrease when the current flows.
In order that the current should be maintained, and the electromotive force of the cell remain constant during action, it is necessary to ensure that the changes in the cell, chemical or other, which produce the current, should neither destroy the difference between the electrodes, nor coat either electrode with a non-conducting layer through which the current cannot pass.
Let an electromotive force exactly equal to that of the cell be applied to it in the reverse direction.
When the applied electromotive force is diminished by an infinitesimal amount, the cell produces a current in the usual direction, and the ordinary chemical changes occur.
If the external electromotive force exceed that of the cell by ever so little, a current flows in the opposite direction, and all the former chemical changes are reversed, copper dissolving from the copper plate, while zinc is deposited on the zinc plate.
The cell, together with this balancing electromotive force, is thus a reversible system in true equilibrium, and the thermodynamical reasoning applicable to such systems can be used to examine its properties.
During a small electric transfer through the cell, the external work done is Ee, where E is the electromotive force.
It will be noticed that when dE/dT is zero, that is, when the electromotive force of the cell does not change with temperature.
The electromotive force is measured by the heat of reaction per unit of electrochemical change.
The earliest formulation of the subject, due to Lord Kelvin, assumed that this relation was true in all cases, and, calculated in this way, the electromotive force of Daniell's cell, which happens to possess a very small temperature coefficient, was found to agree with observation.
Units of work, and therefore the electromotive force of the cell should be 1.112 X Io 8 C.G.S.
For cells in which the electromotive force varies with temperature, the full equation given by Gibbs and Helmholtz has also been confirmed experimentally.
As stated above, an electromotive force is set up whenever there is a difference of any kind at two electrodes immersed in electrolytes.
In ordinary cells the difference is secured by using two dissimilar metals, but an electromotive force exists if two plates of the same metal are placed in solutions of different substances, or of the same substance at different concentrations.
An electromotive force is therefore set up in this direction, and, if we can calculate the change in available energy due to the processes of the cell, we can foretell the value of the electromotive force.
Nernst, to whom this theory is due, determined the electromotive force of this cell experimentally, and found the value 0.055 volt.
The logarithmic formulae for these concentration cells indicate that theoretically their electromotive force can be increased to any extent by diminishing without limit the concentration of the more dilute solution, log c i /c 2 then becoming very great.
The result is that a high electromotive force is set up, which has been calculated as o.
It is now evident that the electromotive force of an ordinary chemical cell such as that of Daniell depends on the concentration of the solutions as well as on the nature of the metals.
In ordinary cases possible changes in the concentrations only affect the electromotive force by a few parts in a hundred, but, by means such as those indicated above, it is possible to produce such immense differences in the concentrations that the electromotive force of the cell is not only changed appreciably but even reversed in direction.
Once more we see that it is the total impending change in the available energy of the system which controls the electromotive force.
The effective electromotive force of the common lead accumulator is less than that required to charge it.
This drop in the electromotive force has led to the belief that the cell is not reversible.
If, instead of using a single Daniell's cell, we employ some source of electromotive force which can be varied as we please, and gradually raise its intensity, we shall find that, when it exceeds a certain value, about 1.7 volt, a permanent current of considerable strength flows through the solution, and, after the initial period, shows no signs of decrease.
These phenomena are explained by the existence of a reverse electromotive force at the surface of the platinum plates.
Only when the applied electromotive force exceeds this reverse force of polarization, will a permanent steady current pass through the liquid, and visible chemical decomposition proceed.
It seems that this reverse electromotive force of polarization is due to the deposit on the electrodes of minute quantities of the products of chemical decomposition.
Differences between the two electrodes are thus set up, and, as we have seen above, an electromotive force will therefore exist between them.
To pass a steady current in the direction opposite to this electromotive force of polarization, the applied electromotive force E must exceed that of polarization E', and the excess E - E' is the effective electromotive force of the circuit, the current being, in accordance with Ohm's law, proportional to the applied electromotive force and represented by (E - E')/ R, where R is a constant called the resistance of the circuit.
The opposing force of polarization is about 1.7 volt, but, when the plates are disconnected and used as a source of current, the electromotive force they give is only about 1.07 volt.
If secondary effects are eliminated, the deposition of metals also is a reversible process; the decomposition voltage is equal to the electromotive force which the metal itself gives when going into solution.
Since zinc goes into solution and copper comes out, the electromotive force of the cell will be the difference between the two effects.
By both these methods the single potential-differences found at the surfaces of the zinc and copper have opposite signs, and the effective electromotive force of a Daniell's cell is the sum of the two effects.
It must be remembered, however, that variations in conditions modify the electromotive force required for any given process.
This solution, being an inferior conductor of electricity, requires a much higher electromotive force to drive the current through it, and is therefore more costly in use.
- The so-called " ballistic " method of measuring induction is based upon the fact that a change of the induction through a closed linear conductor sets up in the conductor an electromotive force which is proportional to the rate of change.
A small coil of fine wire, connected in series with a ballistic galvanometer, is placed in the field, with its windings perpendicular to the lines of force, and then suddenly reversed or withdrawn from the field, the integral electromotive force being twice as great in the first case as in the second.
If a longitudinally magnetized wire is twisted, circular magnetization is developed; this is evidenced by the transient electromotive force induced in the iron, generating a current which will deflect a galvanometer connected with the two ends of the wire.
The tranverse electromotive force is equal to KCH/D, where C is the current, H the strength of the field, D the thickness of the metal, and K a constant which has been termed the rotatory power, or rotational coefficient.
Hall, the positive sign indicating that the electromotive force is in the same direction as the mechanical force acting upon the conductor.
The resonance in the singer's deep voice made the song sound more powerful.