This instrument was capable of giving very considerable speed, but it was more complicated than that now in use, which consists only of an electromagnet, with its armature lever arranged to stop against an anvil or screw in such a way as to give a distinct and somewhat loud sound.
19, consists of an armature a, pivoted at one end h in a slot at one end N of a permanent magnet m, the other pole s of which is fixed to the yoke y of a horse-shoe electromagnet M.
The armature is placed between the poles of the electromagnet, and being magnetized by the magnet m it will oscillate to the right or left under the action of the poles of the electromagnet M according as the current passes through M in one direction or the other.
Through this electromagnet pass impulses of current regulated in frequency by a tuningfork contact breaker; these impulses, acting on the teeth of the iron wheel, by a series of pulls keep it in uniform rotation.
It is in fact the electromagnet and spindle of a telegraph relay with a siphon in place of the tongue.
The amplitude of the signals can be varied in several ways, either by a shunt across the electromagnet, or by altering the tension of the controlling springs or by altering the air gap between electromagnets and armatures.
The current then passes through the coils of an electromagnet, which releases the printing mechanism.
The electromagnet consists of two coils, each wound on a soft iron core fixed to the poles of a strong permanent horse-shoe magnet.
The armature of the electromagnet is normally attracted by the effect of the permanent magnet, but it is furnished with two antagonistic springs tending to throw it upwards.
When a current comes in from line it passes through the electromagnet in such a direction as to weaken the effect of the permanent magnet; hence the springs are able to release the armature, which rises smartly and in its turn releases the printing mechanism.
This is obtained by causing one of them to send a series of signals from one particular key, while the operator at the other station adjusts his speed until he receives the same signal after shortcircuiting his electromagnet for ten revolutions.
It involves many novel features: the receiving electromagnet is of peculiar construction and remarkable efficiency and the transmitting apparatus has a contrivance to prevent unintentional repetitions of a letter through the operator holding his finger too long on a key.
In the receiver there is a strong electromagnet, excited by a local current, which has in its circuit two annular air gaps, across which the magnetic field is practically uniform and constant.
Before reaching the paper the light passes through perforations in two iron plates which are, in fact, the pole pieces of a strong electromagnet; between these is an aluminium shutter which is attached to two parallel wires or thin strips.
A wire or fibre carrying the aluminium siphon cradle is stretched across this bridge piece, and on it is also mounted the small electromagnet, forming part of the " vibrator " arrangement with its hinged armature, to which one end of the stretched wire carrying the siphon is fastened.
Marconi, by giving great attention to details, improved the electromagnetic tapper, and, combining it with his improved form of sensitive tube, made a telegraphic instrument as follows: the small glass tube, containing nickel and silver filings between two silver plugs, was attached to a bone holder, and under this was arranged a small electromagnet having a vibrating armature like an electric bell carrying on it a stem and hammer.
Page of Salem, Mass., drew attention to the sound given out by an electromagnet at the instant when the electric circuit is closed or broken, and in October of the same year he discussed, in a short article a entitled " Galvanic Music," the musical note pro- covery.
Duced by rapidly revolving the armature of an electromagnet in front of the poles.
These electric pulses were made to act on an electromagnet at the receiving station, which, in accordance with Page's discovery, gave out a sound of a pitch corresponding to the number of times it was magnetized or demagnetized per second.
His first idea seems to have been to employ the vibrations of the current in an electric circuit, produced by moving the armature of an electromagnet included in the circuit nearer to or farther from the poles of the magnet.
It was also found that comparatively small magnets were sufficient, and that there was no particular virtue in the closed circuit and electromagnet, but that a small permanent magnet having one pole in contact with FIG.
M, permanent magnet; E, electromagnet; C, diaphragm; t t,, terminals.
The end of the core of a short electromagnet, the coil of which was in circuit with the line, but which had no permanent current flowing through it, answered the purpose quite as well.'
M and M' are two permanent magnets; P and P' are soft iron pole-pieces upon which are placed the electromagnet coils C and C'; D is the diaphragm; I is a soft iron distance piece placed between the magnets at the end remote from the diaphragm; B is the brass body of the instrument, over which is placed a thin ebonite shell S.
On board the packet-ship "Sully," while discussing one day with his fellowpassengers the properties of the electromagnet, he was led to remark: "If the presence of electricity can be made visible in any part of the circuit, I see.
The arc is produced by leading a current of about 5000 volts equatorially between the poles of an electromagnet; this produces what is practically a disk of flame, 62 ft.
Von Kowalski have patented a process wherein the arc is formed at two vertical concentric copper electrodes and rotated by an electromagnet; it is worked at Vevey, Switzerland.
Such a combination constitutes an electromagnet, a valuable device by means of which a magnet can be instantly made and unmade at will.
Steel magnets of great strength and of any convenient form may be prepared either in this manner or by treatment with an electromagnet; hence the natural magnet, or lodestone as it is commonly called, is no longer of any interest except as a scientific curiosity.
In diameter, is laid across the poles of a horseshoe electromagnet, excited by a current of such strength as to produce in the rod a magnetizing force H =20.
The problem of determining the magnetization of iron and other metals in the strong fields formed between the poles of an electromagnet was first attacked by J.
Mag., 1890, 2 9, 293) with an electromagnet specially designed for the production of strong fields, confirm Ewing's results for iron, nickel and cobalt.
Mag., 1896, 41, 153), working with du Bois's electromagnet and using a modification of the isthmus method, succeeded in pushing the induction B up to 74,200 with H =51,600, the corresponding value of I being 1798, and of only 1.44.
The diameter of the isthmus was 0.241 mm., and the electromagnet was excited by a current of 40 amperes.
For the greatest possible " lifting power " of permanent magnets this estimate is probably not very far from the truth, but it is now clearly understood that the force which can be exerted by an electromagnet, or by a pair of electromagnets with= opposite poles in contact, is only limited by the greatest value to which it is practically possible to raise the magnetizing force H.
The metals, which were prepared in the form of small rods, were magnetized between the poles of an electromagnet and tested with a magnetometer at temperatures of - 186° and 15°.
Mag., 1894, 38, 488) used a little spiral of the pure electrolytic bismuth wire prepared by Hartmann and Braun; this was placed between the pole-pieces of an electromagnet and subjected to fields of various strengths up to nearly 39,000 units.
One form consists of a tuning-fork electrically maintained in vibration of known period, which closes an electric contact at every vibration and sets another electromagnet in operation, which reverses a switch and moves over one terminal of the condenser from a battery to a galvanometer contact.
If the wheel be driven at such rate that the armatures move one place on in about the period of the current, then on putting on the current the electromagnet controls the rate of the wheel so that the agreement of period is exact, and the wheel settles down to move so that the electric driving forces just supply the work taken out of the wheel.
It consists of an electromagnet within the iron core of which is a flat disk-like cavity containing mercury, the sides of the cavity being stamped with grooves.
The current to be measured is passed through the coils of the electromagnet, then enters the mercury disk at the centre, flows through it radially in all directions, and emerges at the periphery.
In order to overcome the friction of the counting train, Ferranti ingeniously gave to the core of the electromagnet a certain amount of permanent magnetism.
By the movement of the wire or the movement of the plate, especially if the latter projects from the top of a second and similar piece of apparatus, an electrical contact can be established by means of which an electromagnet may ring a bell, stop a clock, or set free machinery connected with a cylinder or other surface upon which an earthquake machine may record the movement of the ground.
Thus he was able to secure from the Sayner Hutte in 1846 the great electromagnet which he turned to such use in his magnetic researches; thus he attached to his service his former pupil the skilful mechanic Fessel; and thus he discovered and fully availed himself of the ability of the great glass-blower Geissler.