Now, we know that the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed is proportional to the whole amount of electricity which passed through the circuit, and the product of this by the electromotive force of the battery is the work done by the latter, so that in this case also Joule showed that the heat generated was proportional to the work done.
This attitude was due to his adherence to the " dualistic theory" of the structure of substances, which he deduced from electrochemical researches.
However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.
The radical theory, essentially dualistic in nature in view of its similarity to the electrochemical theory of Berzelius, was destined to succumb to a unitary theory.
More emphatic opposition to the dualistic theory of Berzelius was hardly possible; this illustrious chemist perceived that the validity of his electrochemical theory was called in question, and therefore he waged vigorous war upon Dumas and his followers.
He also investigated the diamagnetic and paramagnetic properties of substances; and was keenly interested in the phenomena of electrochemical decomposition, accumulating much evidence in favour of Faraday's law and proposing a modified statement of it which was intended to cover certain apparent exceptions.
Constant cells may be divided into two groups, according as their action is chemical (as in the bichromate cell, where the hydrogen is converted into water by an oxidizing agent placed in a porous pot round the carbon plate) or electrochemical (as in Daniell's cell, where a copper plate is surrounded by a solution of copper sulphate, and the hydrogen, instead of being liberated, replaces copper, which is deposited on the plate from the solution).
Taking the chemical equivalent weight of silver, as determined by chemical experiments, to be 107.92, the result described gives as the electrochemical equivalent of an ion of unit chemical equivalent the value 1 036 X 5.
If, as is now usual, we take the equivalent weight of oxygen as our standard and call it 16, the equivalent weight of hydrogen is I o08, and its electrochemical equivalent is I 044 X 5.
The electrochemical equivalent of any other substance, whether element or compound, may be found by multiplying its chemical equivalent by I 036X Io-5.
The electromotive force is measured by the heat of reaction per unit of electrochemical change.
Hence for the electrochemical unit of zinc or 0.003388 gramme, the thermal evolution is 5.66 calories.
Similarly, the heat which accompanies the dissolution of one electrochemical unit of copper is 3.00 calories.
Thus, the thermal equivalent of the unit of resultant electrochemical change in Daniell's cell is 5.66 - 3.00 =2.66 calories.
Of magnetization is z = S aK approximately, E l being the electrochemical equivalent and S the density of the metal.
In this way the development of the electrochemical industry is in a marked degree altering the distribution of trade throughout the world.
The industrial aspect is treated in a Gartside Report, Some ElectroChemical Centres (Manchester, 1908), by J.
Opposition to the " hydrogen-acid " theory centred mainly about the hypothetical radicals which it postulated; moreover, the electrochemical theory of Berzelius exerted a stultifying influence on the correct views of Davy and Dulong.
Lincei, 1905 (iv.), 14, pp. I, 23, 104), who, by a determination of the electrochemical equivalent of the element, arrived at the value 127.61 A.
Davy followed up his initial work with a long and brilliant series of electrochemical investigations described for the most part in the Phil.
The 5th series (1833) is occupied with his electrochemical researches.
At the end of the 19th century electrochemical industries began to be developed which depended on the possession of cheap electric energy.
Furthermore his electrochemical investigations, and particularly his discovery of the important law of electrolysis, that the movement of a certain quantity of electricity through an electrolyte is always accompanied by the transfer of a certain definite quantity of matter from one electrode to another and the liberation at these electrodes of an equivalent weight of the ions, gave foundation for the idea of a definite atomic charge of electricity.
In fact, long previously to Faraday's electrochemical researches, Sir H.
He followed up the early work of the British Association Committee on electrical units by a fresh determination of the ohm in absolute measure, and in conjunction with other work on the electrochemical equivalent of silver and the absolute electromotive force of the Clark cell may be said to have placed exact electrical measurement on a new basis.
The subject was pursued by Thomson and the Cambridge physicists with great mathematical and experimental ability, and finally the conclusion was reached that in a high vacuum tube the electric charge is carried by particles which have a mass only a fraction, as above mentioned, of that of the hydrogen atom, but which carry a charge equal to the unit electric charge of the hydrogen ion as found by electrochemical researches.