Propelled electrically from one side to the other.
The electrical phenomena show that there are two ions to the molecule, and that these ions are electrically charged.
The wire may have at the upper end a plate called a " capacity area," electrically equivalent to an extension of the wire, or part of the wire may be bent over and carried horizontally.
The colloidal particles are electrically charged and become discharged by the ions of sodium, magnesium and calcium present in the sea-water.
For instance, to take the two solutions to which we have already referred, we have of ions between molecules at the instants of molecular collision only; during the rest of the life of the ions they were regarded as linked to each other to form electrically neutral molecules.
(2) As the concentration of the solutions increases, the ionization as measured electrically and the dissociation as measured osmotically might decrease more or less together, though, since the thermodynamic theory only holds when the solution is so dilute that the dissolved particles are beyond each other's sphere of action, there is much doubt whether this second relation is valid through any appreciable range of concentration.
It should be pointed out that no measurements on osmotic pressures or freezing points can do more than tell us that an excess of particles is present; such experiments can throw no light on the question whether or not those particles are electrically charged.
[[[Feebly Susceptible Substances]] different specimens were tested, all of which became, like iron, thermo-electrically positive to the unmagnetized metals.
An electrically neutral atom is believed to be constituted in part, or perhaps entirely, of a definite number of electrons in rapid motion within a " sphere of uniform positive electrification " not yet explained.
The specific gravity of cast tin is 7.29, of rolled tin 7.299, and of electrically deposited tin 7.143 to 7.178.
Electrically driven pumps, now widely used, are convenient and economical.
The class of furnaces heated by electrically incandescent materials has been divided by Borchers into two groups: (I) those in which the substance is heated by contact form at least so much carbide as would suffice, when diffused through the metal, to render it brittle, practically restricts the use of such processes to the production of aluminium alloys.
A second pencil electrically connected to a clock traces a time line on the diagram with a kick at every thirty seconds.
On the same band a tuning-fork electrically maintained and a seconds clock actuating another style wrote parallel records.
A standard 128 Efork could then be compared either optically or by beats with the electrically driven fork.
In a common form of electrically maintained fork, the fork is set horizontal with its prongs in a vertical plane, and a small electro-magnet is fixed between them.
In Intermittent Registering Meters some form of ampere-meter or watt-meter registers the current or power passing into the house; and a clock motion electrically driven is made to take readings of the ampere-meter or watt-meter at definite intervals - say, every five minutes - and to add up these readings upon a set of registered dials.
A dielectric substance is electrically polarized by a field of electric force, the atomic poles being made up of the displaced positive and negative intrinsic charges in the atom: the polarization per unit volume (f',g',h') may be defined on the analogy of magnetism, and d/dt(f',g',h') thus constitutes true electric current of polarization, i.e.
It is a most perfect non-conductor of electricity, and in its dry state the fibres frequently get so electrically excited as to seriously interfere with their working, so that it becomes necessary to moisten them with glycerin or soapy solutions.
It is only recently that owing to the introduction of carbon tubes heated electrically the excitement of the luminous vibrations of molecules by temperature alone has become an effective method for the study of their spectra even in the case of metals.
Jeans, 2 who showed that a shell-like constitution of the atom, the shells being electrically charged, 1 Proc. Roy.
While some of the phenomena seem to indicate that the projection of metallic vapours into the centre of the spark is a process of molecular diffusion independent of the mechanism of the discharge, the different velocities obtained with bismuth, and the probability that the vibrating systems are not electrically neutral, seem to indicate that the projected metallic particles are electrified and play some part in the discharge.
He draws a distinction between the lines of the trunk series to which he assigns neutral, and the lines of carriers the two branch series of which are electrically charged.
Nevertheless, it was found impracticable to smelt alumina electrically except in presence of copper, so that the Cowles furnace yielded, not the pure metal, but an alloy.
This compound possesses a heat of formation so much lower that electrically it needs but a voltage of 0.9 to decomplose it, and it is easily soluble in the fused sulphides of the alkali metals.
It consisted of a globe of sulphur fixed on an axis and rotated by a winch, and it was electrically excited by the friction of warm hands held against it.
Electric steel-making processes, or more accurately processes in which electrically heated furnaces are used, have developed very rapidly.
Here their use is likely to be limited by its costliness, because for the great majority of purposes the superiority of the electrically purified steel is not worth the cost of the electric purification.
Patients in whom, for purposes of diagnosis, it has been electrically excited, describe, as the initial effect of the stimulation, tingling and obscure but locally-limited sensations, referred to the part whose muscles a moment later are thrown into co-ordinate activity.
The simplest method of measuring the specific heat appears to be that of supplying heat electrically to a steady current of vapour in a vacuum-jacket calorimeter, and observing the rise of temperature produced.
In 1847 he took charge of the longitude department of the United States Coast Survey, where he was among the first to make use of the electric telegraph for the purpose of determining the difference of longitude between two stations, and he introduced the method of registering transit observations electrically by means of a chronograph.
A device of more recent introduction is an electrically-driven charging machine, in which the centrifugal force created by a fly-wheel revolving at high speed is applied to drive coal into the retort.
Perhaps an electrically maintained tuning-fork is still better.
A still greater improvement may be effected by using an electrically maintained fork, which performs the double office of controlling the resolution of the jet and of interrupting the primary current of the induction coil.
The waves may be generated by electrically maintained tuning-forks from which dippers touch the surface; but special arrangements are needed for rendering them visible.
Guntz (Comptes rendus, 1901, 133, p. 872) electrolyses a saturated solution of barium chloride using a mercury cathode and obtains a 3% barium amalgam; this amalgam is transferred to an iron boat in a wide porcelain tube and the tube slowly heated electrically, a good yield of pure barium being obtained at about looo C. The metal when freshly cut possesses a silver white lustre, is a little harder than lead, and is extremely easily oxidized on exposure; it is soluble in liquid ammonia, and readily attacks both water and alcohol.
91, p. 1938) among the gaseous products formed when a platinum wire is electrically heated under the surface of acetic anhydride.
To-day, by reason of other uses to which electricity is applied, electrically deposited copper of high conductivity is in everincreasing demand, and commands a higher price than copper refined by fusion.
Marconi applied a modified and improved form of Branly's wave detector in conjunction with a novel form of radiator for the telegraphic transmission of intelligence through space without wires, and he and others developed this new form of telegraphy with the greatest rapidity and success into a startling and most useful means of communicating through space electrically without connecting wires.
Alexander Graham Bell in 1876 invented the speaking telephone, and Edison and Elisha Gray in the United States followed almost immediately with other telephonic inventions for electrically transmitting speech.