The system of local self-government is continued, so far as the 34 governments of old Russia are concerned, 6 in the elective district and provincial assemblies (zemstvos).
The last section is partly elective and partly nominated.
A general state law enacted in 1904 placed the management of school affairs in the hands of an elective council of seven members, five chosen at large and two by districts.
There is also an elective general council.
In his classical thesis Berthollet vigorously attacked the results deduced by Bergman, who had followed in his table of elective attractions the path traversed by Stahl and S.
In 1861 it was 114,363 it increased largely when the capital of Italy was in and an elective town council (consiglio comunale).
With an elective chief magistrate.
The elective councils for the department and for the arrondissement (a new area which replaced the "districts" of the year 1795) continued to exist, but they sat only for a fortnight in the year and had to deal mainly with the assessment of taxes for their respective areas.
Other elective officers are the mayor, city treasurer, city sergeant, commonwealth attorney, city collector, city auditor, sheriff and high constable, elected for four years; and clerks of the various courts elected for eight years.
Each has its own documentary constitution; its legislature of two elective houses; its executive, consisting of a governor and other officials; its judiciary, whose decisions are final, except in cases involving Federal law; its system of local government and local taxation; its revenue, system of taxation, and debts; its body of private civil and criminal law and procedure; its rules of citizenship, which may admit persons to be voters in state and national elections under conditions differing from those prevailing in other states.
In the Indus Valley region, a center of early civilization located near present-day India, we have found extensive evidence of surgery, specialization, medical equipment, and even elective procedures.
Parliament consists of two chambers, the senate and the Chamber of Deputies, which are nominally on an equal footing, though practically the elective chamber ~s the more important.
It is administered by an elective municipal council with a civil service administrator as mayor.
Mississippi thus became one of the first states in the Union to establish an elective judiciary.
The principal elective local administrative bodies are the provincial and the communal councils.
Finally, a distinction is drawn between "elective" and "hereditary" monarchies.
Of the former class the most conspicuous was the Holy Roman Empire; but in Europe all monarchies were, within certain limits, originally elective; and, after the introduction of Christianity, the essential condition of the assumption of sovereign power was not so much kinship with the reigning family as the "sacring" by the divine authority of the Church.
The powers formerly vested in elective bodies were now to be wielded by prefects and sub-prefects, nominated by the First Consul and responsible to him.
Sigismund, king of the Romans, had, by the death of his brother Wenceslaus without issue, acquired a claim on the Bohemian crown; though it was then, and remained till much later, doubtful whether Bohemia was an hereditary or an elective monarchy.
The right, not often exercised, of the Magyar nobles to meet in general assembly and the elective character of the crown Stephen also did not venture to touch.
The ruthless suppression of the Magyar malcontents, in which there was little discrimination between the innocent and the guilty, had so crushed the spirit of the country that Leopold considered the time ripe for realizing a long-cherished ideal of the Habsburgs and changing Hungary from an elective into an hereditary monarchy.
These conditions the diet had no choice but to accept, and, in October 1687, the elective monarchy of Hungary, which had been in existence for nearly seven hundred years, ceased to exist.
Since 1887 the management of the town had been entrusted to a nominated sanitary board, under the chairmanship of the mining commissioner appointed by the South African Republic. In 1890 elected members had been admitted to this board, but at the end of 1897 an elective stadsraad (town council) was constituted, though its functions were strictly limited.
After a period of military administration and of government by a nominated town council, an ordinance was passed in June 1903 providing for elective municipal councils, and in December following the first election to the new council took place.
The headship of the clan was sometimes hereditary, sometimes elective, but each clan had a totemic name, and the clans together constituted the tribe, the bond being not land, but blood.
To meet their political wants the Constitution Act of 1852 created them into provinces, with elective councils and superintendents respectively, subordinated to one colonial legislature.
Local administration is vested in local elective bodies, such as municipal councils, county councils, road boards, harbour boards, charitable aid boards, and others, with power to levy rates.
The feudal estates were replaced by two chambers, largely elective, and the privy council by a responsible ministry of six departments.
The feudal character of the first chamber was abolished, and its members made mainly elective from among the highest tax-payers, while an almost universal suffrage was introduced for the second chamber.
This further act of repression led to two terrible Cossack risings, in 1635 and 1636, put down only with the utmost difficulty, whereupon the diet of 1638 deprived the Cossacks of all their ancient privileges, abolished the elective hetmanship, and substituted for it a commission of Polish noblemen with absolute power, so that the Cossacks might well declare that those who hated them were lords over them.
Thus, at the election diet of 1669, one of the deputies, Pieniaszek, moved that a new and hitherto unheard-of clause should be inserted in the agenda of the general confederation, to the effect that every senator .and deputy should solemnly swear not to take bribes, while another szlacic proposed that the ambassadors of foreign Powers should be excluded permanently from the Polish elective assemblies.
Its duty is to deliberate upon all administrative matters, including the budget, and it possesses certain powers over the finances; (3) The Financial Delegations (created by decree in 1898), an elective body whose duty is to investigate all matters affecting taxation and to vote the budget.
The charter contains initiative and referendum provisions, provides for the recall of any elective city official, and prohibits the granting of any franchise for a longer term than twenty years.
The other and parallel branch of the party organization consists of the bodies whose function it is to nominate party candidates for elective posts, whether legislative or Pa,aty Noni.
The government is that of all cities of the second class in New York state, with an elective mayor and other important officers and a single-chambered city council.
In 1858 the LiberalConservative party, formed in 1854 by a coalition, attempted to bring him out as a candidate for the upper house, which was at this date elective, but though he had broken with the advanced reformers, he could not approve of the tactics of their opponents, and refused to stand.
Alfred de Musset was introduced, and the two natures leapt together as by elective affinity.
Thus, if x= horned and y = sheep, then the successive acts of election represented by x and y, if performed on unity, give the whole of the class horned sheep. Boole showed that elective symbols of this kind obey the same primary laws of combination as algebraical symbols, whence it followed that they could be added, subtracted, multiplied and even divided, almost exactly in the same manner as numbers.
Each provincial administrative junta is composed, in part, of government nominees, and in larger part of elective elements, elected by the provincial council for four years, half of whom require to be elected every two years.
The president of the order, whose office was elective and who enjoyed the dignity for life, had supreme authority among them.
There was hardly any regular succession to the throne; and Jerusalem, as Stubbs writes, "suffered from the weakness of hereditary right and the jealousies of the elective system" at one and the same time.
Then, from 1891 to 1903, by what was practically a new charter, that which is known as the "federal plan" of government was tried; this centred power in the mayor by making him almost the only elective officer, by giving to him the appointment of his cabinet of directors - one for the head of each of the six municipal departments - and to each director the appointment of his subordinates.
He then made what had hitherto been an elective a hereditary throne by crowning his infant son Emerich his successor.
He soon returned to Sparta to mature plans for overthrowing the hereditary kingship and substituting an elective monarchy open to all Heraclids, or even, according to another version, to all Spartiates.
In 1888 an elective commission was established with power to fix maximum rates, which has met with general commendation throughout the country.
The most mischievous of the ancient abuses, the elective monarchy and the liberum veto, were of course retained.
The position of Greek as an " elective " or " optional " subject (notably at Harvard), an arrangement regarded with approval by some eminent educational authorities and with regret by others, probably has some effect on the high schools in the small number of those who learn Greek, and in their lower rate of increase, as compared with those who learn Latin.
Other reforms. followed in quick succession during the next five or six years: army and navy organization, a new judicial administration on the French model, a new penal code and a greatly simplified system of civil and criminal procedure, an elaborate scheme of local self-government for the rural districts and the large towns, with elective assemblies possessing a restricted right of taxation, and a new rural and municipal police under the direction of the minister of the interior.
In addition to this Bedouin organization there was the curious institution of an elective monarchy, some of whose kings are catalogued in Gen.
In 1172 the Great Council began as an elective body; it gradually ousted the popular assembly from all practical power.
Each division was represented by two elective assessment commissioners (ra?crai), who assisted the Boule at Athens in the quadrennial division of the tribute.
The courses at Radcliffe are elective, only certain courses in English are prescribed.
The Act of 1872 provided for five or more colleges or departments: a college of science, literature and the arts, which offers (for the degree of Bachelor of Arts) a four-years course, is entirely elective (except that a certain number of " long courses " must be selected) after the first year, and in which the only restriction is upon the range of subjects from which the student's choice may be made; a college of agriculture (including military tactics), which is now a " department," including a college and a school of agriculture, a short course for farmers, a dairy school, the Crookston school of agriculture, a main experiment station at St Anthony Park, between Minneapolis and St Paul, and sub-stations 1 m.
Another law, 2 directed against Indians, excludes from the franchise, natives, or descendants of natives in the male line, of countries not possessing elective representative institutions.
As in Bantu, the verb presents a multiplicity of forms, including one present, three past and future tenses, with personal endings complete, passive, interrogative, conditional, elective, negative and other forms, each with its proper participial inflexions.
A good example of the dependence of prelacy on jurisdiction is found in those religious orders, such as the Dominicans, where authority is strictly elective and temporary.