The Caucasus, the Elburz, the Kopet-dagh and Paropamisus, the intricate and imperfectly known network of mountains W.
Shelving gradually upward from the low flats of Siberia the general continental level rises to a great central waterparting, or divide, which stretches from the Black Sea through the Elburz and the Hindu Kush to the Tian-shan mountains in the Pamir region, and hence to Bering Strait on the extreme north-east.
Along the south coast of the Caspian this line of elevation is prolonged as the Elburz range(not to be confused with the Elburz of the Caucasus), and has its culminating point in Demavend, which rises to 19,400 ft.
In western Asia we have learned the exact value of the mountain barrier which lies between Mery and Herat, and have mapped Indian its connexion with the Elburz of Persia.
South-eastwards to the Kara-dagh and Salavat mountains in north Persia, and the latter link them on to the Elburz mountains that skirt the southern end of the Caspian Sea.
By the Elburz Mountains, W.
Of the Caspian Sea, which extends from the Elburz chain eastwards towards Herat, and is bounded on the N.
The subjugation of such districts could only be by a system of effective military occupation and would be a work of time; but Alexander made a beginning by punitive expeditions, as occasion offered, calculated to reduce the free tribes to temporary quiet; we hear of such expeditions in the case of the Pisidians, the tribes of the Lebanon, the Uxii (in Khuzistan), the Tapyri (in the Elburz), the hill-peoples of Bajaor and Swat, the Cossaei (in Kurdistan); an expedition against the Arabs was in preparation when Alexander died.
ELBURZ, or Alburz (from O.
According to the direction, or strike, of its principal ranges the Elburz may be divided into three sections: the first 120 m.
To S.E., the second section of the Elburz begins, and extends from there to beyond Mount Demavend, east of Teheran.
The Elburz then splits into three principal ranges running parallel to one another and connected at many places by secondary ranges and spurs.
The part of the Elburz immediately north of Teheran is known as the Kuh i Shimran (mountain of Shimran, from the name of the Shimran district on its southern slopes) and culminates in the Sar i Tochal (12,600 ft.).
The eastern foot of Demavend is washed by the river Herhaz (called Lar river in its upper course), which there breaks through the Elburz in a S.-N.
The third section of the Elburz, with its principal ranges striking S.W.
The northern slopes of the Elburz and the lowlands which lie between them and the Caspian, and together form the provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Astarabad, are covered with dense forest and traversed by hundreds (Persian writers say 1362) of perennial rivers and streams. The breadth of the lowlands between the foot of the hills and the sea is from 2 to 25 m., the greatest breadth being in the meridian of Resht in Gilan, and in the districts of Amol, Sari and Barfurush in Mazandaran.
The higher ranges of the Elburz are snow-capped for the greater part of the year, and some, which are not exposed to the refracted heat from the arid districts of inner Persia, are rarely without snow.
Water is plentiful in the Elburz, and situated in well-watered valleys and gorges are innumerable flourishing villages, embosomed in gardens and orchards, with extensive cultivated fields and meadows, and at higher altitudes small plateaus, under snow until March or April, afford cool camping grounds to the nomads of the plains, and luxuriant grazing to their sheep and cattle during the summer.
After this we trace the friar in northern Persia, in Millestorte, once famous as the Land of the Assassins in the Elburz highlands.
The Medians too were subject to him as far as the Elburz and the central Iranian desert.
This section of the sea washes on the south the base of the Elburz range in Persia, sweeping round from the mouth of the Kura, a little north of the Bay of Kizil-agach, to Astarabad at an average distance of 40 m.
A little east of the Gulf of Enzeli, which resembles the Kara-boghaz, though on a much smaller scale, the Sefid-rud pours into the Caspian the drainage of the western end of the Elburz range, and several smaller streams bring down the precipitation that falls on the northern face of the same range farther to the east.
Here there intervenes a second wide synclinal plateau, of which the northern edge is defined by the flat outlines of the Elburz to the south of Mazar-i-Sharif, and immediately at the foot of this range lie the alluvial plains of Mazar and Tashkurghan.
According to the Babylonian account, the resting-place of the Ark was "on the Mountain of Nizir," which some writers have identified with Mount Rowanduz, and others with Mount Elburz, near Teheran.
Even the name Elburz, which European geographers apply to the chains and ranges that extend for a length of over 500 in.
(Russian trigonometrical survey), and ending in Khorasan, the great Elburz range presents on its southern, or inward, face a more or less abrupt scarp rising above immense gravel slopes, and reaches in some of its summits a height of nearly 13,000 ft.; and the peak of Demavend, north-west of Teheran, has a height of at least 18,000 ft.
The Kizil Uzain takes up some important affluents and is called Seafid Rud from the point where it breaks through the Elburz to the sea, a distance of 70 m.
The Herhaz, though not important in length of course or drainage, also, like the Seafid Rud, breaks through the Elburz range from the inner southern scarp to the north.
In height within the Elburz, and about 25 m.
A dry and warm wind comes down from the snowy Elburz to Gilan in December and January, and much resembles the fhn of the Alps (Dr Tholozan, Sur les vents du Nord de la Perse et sur le foehn du Guilan, Corn pies rendus, Acad.
Khorasan to the Perso-Afghan border, its western limit being indicated by a long line to the northwest from near Shiraz, taking in the whole upper country to the Russian frontier and the Elburz; (2) the provinces south and south-west of the Caspian; (3) a narrow strip of wooded country south-west of the Zagros range, from the Diyala River in Turkey in Asia to Shiraz; (4) the Persian side of the Shatt-el-Arab, and Aralictan, east of the Tigris; and (5) the shores of the Persian Gulf and Baluchistan.
These wars were continued under successive kings, till the Assyrian power in these regions attained its zenith under Sargon (q.1.), who (715 B.C.) led into exile the Median chief Dayuku (see DElocEs), a vassal of the Minni (Mannaeans), with all his family, and subjected the princes of Media as far as the mountain of Bikni (Elburz) and the border of the great desert.
Then with the Caspian Gatesthe pass between Elburz and the central desert, through which lay the route from west Iran to east Iranthe upper provinces begin; (8) Choarene and (9)
The whole of the north is occupied by an extensive highland system composed of a part of the Elburz and its continuation extending to the Paropamisus.
In the west the northern highlands develop two branches: (I) the Kuren Dagh, stretching through the Great and Little Balkans to the Caspian at Krasnovodsk Bay, (2) the Ala Dagh, forming a continuation of the Binalud Kuh and joining the mountains between Bujnurd and Astarabad, which form part of the Elburz system.
(5) The Karachais (18,500) in the upper valleys about Elburz live by agriculture.