By means of the Stecknitz canal, the Elbe, the principal river, is connected with the Trave.
Neuwerk and Scharhorn, situated off the mouth of the Elbe, are islands belonging to the state of Hamburg.
For practical studies see official reports on the Mississippi, Rhine, Seine, Elbe and other great rivers.
CUXHAVEN, or Kuxhaven, a seaport town of Germany, belonging to the state of Hamburg, and situated at the extremity of the west side of the mouth of the Elbe, 71 m.
The harbour is good and secure, and is much frequented by vessels delayed in the Elbe by unfavourbale weather.
It is also most probable that another similar stream - the N., coming from the Elbe, through the basin of the Vistula - ought to be distinguished.
Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
And Honorius III., formally renounced all the German lands north of the Elbe and Elde, as well as the Wendish lands on the Baltic, in favour of Valdemar.
The south-western Baltic was a Danish Mediterranean, and Danish territory extended from the Elbe to lake Peipus.
In addition to being the principal emporium for the Austrian traffic on the Elbe, Tetschen has a considerable industry, its products comprising chemicals, oil, soap, cotton stuffs, plaster of Paris, glazed and coloured paper, cellulose, beer, flour and preserved fish.
WITTENBERGE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Elbe, near the influx of the Stepenitz into that river, 77 m.
The magnificent bridge here spanning the Elbe, one mile in length, was built in 1851 at a cost of £237,500.
He controlled all the lands from the Elbe to the Pyrenees, and had Spain and Italy at his beck and call.
Even so, Prussia was bereft of half of her territories; those west of the river Elbe went to swell the domains of Napoleon's vassals or to form the new kingdom of Westphalia for Jerome Bonaparte; while the spoils which the House of Hohenzollern had won from Poland in the second and third partitions were now to form the duchy of Warsaw, ruled over by Napoleon's ally, the elector (now king) of Saxony.
The crusaders of northern Germany never went to the Holy Land at all; they were allowed the crusaders' privileges for attacking the Wends to the east of the Elbe - a fact which at once attests the cleavage between northern and southern Germany (intensified of late years by the war of investitures), and anticipates the age of the Teutonic knights and their long Crusade on the Baltic. The crusaders of the Low Countries and of England took the sea route, and attacked and captured Lisbon on their way, thus helping to found the kingdom of Portugal, and achieving the one real success which was gained by the Second Crusade.
HARBURG, a seaport town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, on the left bank of the southern arm of the Elbe, 6 m.
RIESENGEBIRGE (Bohemian Krkonose), or Giant Mountains, a lofty and rugged group on the boundary of Silesia and Bohemia, between the upper courses of the Elbe and the Oder.
From both ridges spurs of greater or less length are sent off at various angles, whence a magnificent view is obtained from Breslau to Prague; the lowlands of Silesia, watered by the Oder, and those of Bohemia, intersected by the Elbe and the Moldau, appearing to lie mapped in relief.
The Bohemian ridge is cleft about the middle by a deep gorge through which pour the headwaters of the river Elbe, which finds its source in the Siebengriinde.
MEISSEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, on both banks of the Elbe, 15 m.
The bridge over the Elbe was destroyed by the French in 1813, and again by the Saxons in June 1866 in order to impede the march of the Prussians on Dresden.
Colin on the right bank of the Elbe was incorporated with Meissen in 1901.
The troops had got much mixed up, but as the French did not immediately press the pursuit home, order was soon re-established and a combined retreat was begun towards the mouth of the Elbe and Lubeck.
In this manner by the end of March upwards of 200,000 men were moving towards the Elbe,' and in the first fortnight of April they were duly concentrated in the angle formed by the Elbe and Saale, threatening on the one hand Berlin, on the other Dresden and the east.
The allies, aware of the gradual strengthening of their enemy's forces but themselves as yet unable to put more than 200,000 in the field, had left a small corps of observation opposite Magdeburg and along the Elbe to give timely notice of an advance towards Berlin; and with the bulk of their forces had taken up a position about Dresden, whence they had determined to march down the course of the Elbe and roll up the French from right to left.
As soon as possible the army pressed on in pursuit, Ney being sent across the Elbe to turn the position of the allies at Dresden.
This threat forced the latter to evacuate the town and retire over the Elbe, after blowing up the stone bridge across the river.
Corps up the Elbe to Pirna and KOnigstein to cover the fortifications of Dresden itself.
Seeing clearly that his want of an efficient cavalry precluded all ideas of a resolute offensive in his old style, he determined to limit himself to a defence of the line of the Elbe, making only dashes of a few days' duration at any target the enemy might present.
Reinforcements had been coming up without ceasing and at the beginning of August he calculated that he would have 30o,000 men available about Bautzen and 10o,000 along the Elbe from Hamburg via Magdeburg to Torgau.
At length becoming impatient he advanced a portion of his army towards Blucher, who fell back to draw him into a trap. Then the news reached him that Schwarzenberg was pressing down the valley of the Elbe, and, leaving Macdonald to observe Blucher, he hurried back to Bautzen to dispose his troops to cross the Bohemian mountains in the general direction of KOnigstein, a blow which must have had decisive results.
It is situated on the Aupa, a tributary of the Elbe, at the foot of the Riesengebirge, and possesses a beautiful church built in 1283 and restored in 1768.
HAMBURG, a seaport of Germany, capital of the free state of Hamburg, on the right bank of the northern arm of the Elbe, 75 m.
As they are subject to the ebb and flow of the Elbe, at certain times they run almost dry.
Near the west extremity, abutting upon the Elbe, the moat was filled in in 1894-1897, and some good streets were built along the site, while the Kersten Miles-Briicke, adorned with statues of four Hamburg heroes, was thrown across the Helgolander Allee.
The southern arm of the Elbe, on the south side of the island of Wilhelmsburg, is crossed by another railway bridge of four arches and 2050 ft.
An excellent service of electric trams interconnect the towns of Hamburg, Altona and the adjacent suburbs, and steamboats provide communication on the Elbe with the riparian towns and villages; and so with Blankenese and Harburg, with Stade, Gliickstadt and Cuxhaven.
On the north side of the Elbe there are the Sandtor basin (3380 ft.
During the last 25 years of the 19th century the channel of the Elbe was greatly improved and deepened, and during the last two years of the 19th century some £360,000 was spent by Hamburg alone in regulating and correcting this lower course of the river.
Hamburg probably had its origin in a fortress erected in 808 by Charlemagne, on an elevation between the Elbe and Alster, as a defence against the Sla y s, and called Hammaburg because of the surrounding forest (Hamme).
In 1189 a charter granting Hamburg considerable franchises, including exemption from tolls, a separate court and jurisdiction, and the rights of fishery on the Elbe from the city to the sea.
The first steamboat was seen on the Elbe on the 17th of June 1816; in 1826 a regular steam communication was opened with London; and in 1856 the first direct steamship line linked the port with the United States.
HITZACKER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover at the influx of the Jeetze into the Elbe, 33 m.
From its confluence with the Elbe, 67 m.
The mark of Meissen was originally a district centring round the castle of Meissen or Misnia on the Middle Elbe, which was built about 920 by the German king Henry I., the Fowler, as a defence against the Sla y s.
SCHONEBECK, a town of Germany, in the province of Prussian Saxony, on the left bank of the Elbe, 9 m.
There is a harbour on the Elbe here, and a brisk trade is carried on in coal, grain and timber.
HAMBURG, a state of the German empire, on the lower Elbe, bounded by the Prussian provinces of Schleswig-Holstein and Hanover.
M., and consists of the city of Hamburg with its incorporated suburbs and the surrounding district, including several islands in the Elbe, five small enclaves in Holstein; the communes of Moorburg in the Luneburg district of the Prussian province of Hanover and Cuxhaven-Ritzebuttel at the mouth of the Elbe, the island of Neuwerk about 5 m.
The Geestlande comprise the suburban districts encircling the city on the north and west; the Marschlande includes various islands in the Elbe and the fertile tract of land lying between the northern and southern arms of the Elbe, and with its pastures and market gardens supplying Hamburg with large quantities of country produce.
Two rivers, the Alster and the Bille, flow through the city of Hamburg into the Elbe, the mouth of which, at Cuxhaven, is 75 m.
The jurisdiction of the Free Port was on the 1st of January 1882 restricted to the city and port by the extension of the Zollverein to the lower Elbe, and in 1888 the whole of the state of Hamburg, with the exception of the so-called "Free Harbour" (which comprises the port proper and some large warehouses, set apart for goods in bond), was taken into the Zollverein.
ELBE (the Albis of the Romans and the Labe of the Czechs), a river of Germany, which rises in Bohemia not far from the frontiers of Silesia, on the southern side of the Riesengebirge, at an altitude of about 4600 ft.
Of the Elbfall, the latter stream unites with the steep torrential Weisswasser at Madelstegbaude, at an altitude of 2230 ft., and thereafter the united stream of the Elbe pursues a southerly course, emerging from the mountain glens at Hohenelbe (1495 ft.), and continuing on at a soberer pace to Pardubitz, where it turns sharply to the west, and at Kolin (73 o ft.), some 27 m.
Some miles lower down, at Leitmeritz (433 ft.), the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish Eger, a stream which drains the southern slopes of the Erzgebirge.
Wide, the Elbe carves a path through the basaltic mass of the Mittelgebirge, churning its way through a deep, narrow rocky gorge.
Above the Elbe), the scene of one of Frederick the Great's military exploits in the Seven Years' War, KOnigstein (797 ft.
Above the Elbe), where in times of war Saxony has more than once stored her national purse for security, and the pinnacled rocky wall of the Bastei, towering 650 ft.
At Pirna the Elbe leaves behind it the stress and turmoil of the Saxon Switzerland, rolls through Dresden, with its noble river terraces, and finally, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the North German plain, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, Hamburg, Harburg and Altona on the way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the left, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Havel and Elde from the right.
Eight miles above Hamburg the stream divides into the Norder (or Hamburg) Elbe and the Slider (or Harburg) Elbe, which are linked together by several cross-channels, and embrace in their arms the large island of Wilhelmsburg and some smaller ones.
Below Hamburg, all these anastomosing branches have been reunited, and the Elbe, with a width of 4 to 9 m.