The oldest rocks of Elba consist of schist and serpentine which in the eastern part of the island are overlaid by beds containing Silurian and Devonian fossils.
The most remarkable feature in the geology of Elba is the extent of the granitic and ophiolitic eruptions of the Tertiary period.
The celebrated iron ore of Elba is of Tertiary age and occurs indifferently in all the older rocks.
The other villages in the island are Campo nell' Elba, on the S.
Coast, with picturesque Spanish fortifications, constructed in 1602 by Philip III.; Rio dell' Elba and Rio Marina, both on the E.
At Le Grotte, between Portoferraio and Rio dell' Elba, and at Capo Castello, on the N.E.
Elba was famous for its mines in early times, and the smelting furnaces gave it its Greek name of A' OaNia ("soot island").
In 453 B.C. Elba was devastated by a Syracusan squadron.
Colt Hoare, A Tour through the Island of Elba (London, 1814).
Of the smaller islands that lie near the coasts of Italy, the most considerable is that of Elba, off the west coast of central Italy, about 50 m.
South of Elba are the equally insignificant islets of Pianosa and Montecristo, while the more considerable island of Giglio lies much nearer the mainland, immediately opposite the mountain promontory of Monte Argentaro, itself almost an island.
Piedmont was declared to be a military division at the disposal of France (April 21, r8oi); and on the 21st of September 1802, Bonaparte, then First Consul for life, issued a decree for its definitive incorporation in the French Republic. About that time, too, Elba fell into the hands of Napoleon.
In return for the great accessions of power to France since the treaty of Amiens (Elba, it may be noted, was annexed in August 1802) Great Britain was to retain Malta for ten years and to acquire the small island of Lampedusa in perpetuity.
On the 10th he bade farewell to his guard and set forth from Fontainebleau for Elba, which the powers had very reluctantly, and owing to the pressure of the tsar, awarded to him as a possession.
At Elba, as Sir Neil Campbell noted, he became inactive and proportionately corpulent.
The British government, on hearing of his arrival at Plymouth, decided to send him to St Helena, the formation of that island being such as to admit of a certain freedom of movement for the august captive, with none of the perils for the world at large which the tsar's choice, Elba, had involved.
The title of emperor, which he enjoyed at Elba, had been forfeited by the adventure of 1815, and he was now treated officially as a general.
But the sultan could not bend his pride to suffer foreign intervention in a matter that touched his honour, and the return of Napoleon from Elba threw the Eastern Question into the background.
Next they sailed up the Eridanus into the Rhodanus, passing through the country of the Celts and Ligurians to the Stoechades, then to the island of Aethalia (Elba), finally reaching the Tyrrhenian Sea and the island of Circe, who absolved them from the murder of Absyrtus.
Was restored to the French throne: and Napoleon was permitted to reside in the island of Elba, the sovereignty of which had been conceded to him by the allied powers.
On the return of Napoleon from Elba, in 1815, Fourier published a royalist proclamation, and left Grenoble as Napoleon entered it.
The pillars which support the nave are of marble from Elba and Giglio; those of the side aisles are the spoils of ancient Greek and Roman buildings brought by the Pisan galleys.
In addition to these privileges the Genoese also held Corsica and part of Sardinia; and throughout the island of Elba they were exempted from every tax.
The latter, a man of inferior ability and daring, sold Pisa to the count of Virtu, receiving in exchange 200,000 florins, Piombino, and the islands of Elba, Pianosa and Monte Cristo.
Everything was brought into a state of uncertainty once more by the escape of Napoleon from Elba; but the events of the Hundred Days, in which Talleyrand had no share - he remained at Vienna until the Toth of June - brought in the Bourbons once more; and Talleyrand's plea for a magnanimous treatment of France under Louis XVIII.
On February 27, 1815, Napoleon set sail from Elba with his force of l,000 men and 4 guns, determined to reconquer the throne of France.
It exported iron from Elba, mosaics, pottery, manufactured locally with earth from Ischia (which was in considerable demand until 1883), sulphur (which indeed was extracted in the neighbourhood until the 18th century), probably alum (which is still worked), perfumes, pozzolana earth (taking its name from the place), cretaceous earth for mixing with grain (alica) from the Leucogaean hills, glass cups engraved with views of Puteoli, mineral dyes (the blue invented.
In 1814 he was sent to North America; on the return of Napoleon from Elba he was recalled, but did not arrive in time to take part in the battle of Waterloo.
After the events of 1814 she joined the emperor in the island of Elba and was privy to his plans of escape, returning to Paris during the Hundred Days.
Nevertheless in 1814 she repaired with "Madame Mere" to Elba, and is said to have expressed a wish to share Napoleon's exile in St Helena.
After Napoleons abdication, ~nd exile to the island of Elba, came the Revolutions abdication of her conquests: the first treaty of Paris (May 30th) confirmed Frances renunciation of Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine, and her return within her pre-revolutionary frontiers, save for some slight rectifications.
On Napoleon's escape from Elba Murat turned against the Austrians, and Ferdinand had again to leave Florence temporarily; but he returned after Waterloo, and reigned until his death in 1824.
After Waterloo, Hortense, suspected by the Bourbons of having arranged the return from Elba, had to go into exile.
The earlier sources of the ores appear to have been in India; the Greeks, however, obtained it from the Chalybes, who dwelt on the south coast of the Black Sea; and the Romans, besides drawing from these deposits, also exploited Spain, Elba and the province of Noricum.
The following year saw the return af Napoleon from Elba, the close of the congress of Vienna, and Lhe campaign that ended with the battle of Waterloo.
When Napoleon returned from Elba Soult at once declared himself a Bonapartist, was made a peer of France and acted as majorgeneral (chief of staff) to the emperor in the campaign of Waterloo, in which role he distinguished himself far less than he had done as commander of an over-matched army.
The crystal, from Elba, shows a combination of the fundamental rhombohedron (R), an obtuse rhombohedron (s), and the hexagonal bipyramid (n).
Crystallized haematite, such as that from the iron-mines of Elba, presents a steel-grey or ironblack colour, with a brilliant metallic lustre, sometimes beautifully iridescent.
Haematite is an important ore of iron (q.v.), and is extensively worked in Elba, Spain (Bilbao), Scandinavia, the Lake Superior region and elsewhere.
It is the port of embarcation for Elba, the nearest point of which is about 6 m.
The iron mines of Elba, and the tin and copper of the mainland, were owned and smelted by the people of Populonia; hot springs too lay some 6 m.