Among the indigenous trees are the Abies excelsa, Abies microsperma, Pinus sinensis, Pinus pinea, three species of oak, five of maple, lime, birch, juniper, mountain ash, walnut, Spanish chestnut, hazel, willow, hornbeam, hawthorn, plum, pear, peach, Rhus vernicifera, (?) Rhus semipinnata, Acanthopanax ricinifolia, Zelkawa, Thuja orientalis, Elaeagnus, Sophora Japonica, &c. Azaleas and rhododendrons are widely distributed, as well as other flowering shrubs and creepers, Ampelopsis Veitchii being universal.
Farther east and north comes the Turkestan pine (Picea Schrenkiana), while at lower levels there grow willows, black and white poplars, tamarisk, Celtis, as well as Elaeagnus (wild olive), Hippophae rhamnoides (sallow thorn), Rubus fructicosus (blackberry), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn) and P. A rmeniaca (apricot).
Two species of poplar (P. pruinosa and P. diversifolia), Elaeagnus angustifolia, the ash, and a few willows grow along the rivers.
In the desert regions vegetation is, of course, extremely scanty, being restricted almost entirely to the tamarisk, Elaeagnus, tussock grass, and a few Salsolaceae.