His investigations on vinegar-making revolutionized that industry, and he showed how, instead of waiting two or three months for the elaboration of the process, the vinegar could be made in eight or ten days by exposing the vats containing the mixture of wine and vinegar to a temperature of 20 to 25° C., and sowing with a small quantity of the acetic organism.
George Sand, who was a firm believer in the doctrine of heredity, devotes a whole volume of her autobiography (Histoire de ma vie, 1857 seq.) to the elaboration of this strange pedigree.
The gradual elaboration of the sacrificial ceremonial, as the all-sufficient expression of religious devotion, and a constantly growing tendency towards theosophic and mystic speculation on the significance of every detail of the ritual, could not fail to create a demand for explanatory treatises of this kind, which, to enhance their practical utility, would naturally deal with the special texts and rites assigned in the ceremonial to the several classes of officiating priests.
Of the medusa differs only in greater elaboration and differentiation of the cell-elements, which are also more concentrated to form distinct tissues.
Many of the lower forms of Brown Seaweeds (Phoeophyceae) have a thallus consisting of simple or branched cell threads, as in the green and red forms. The lateral union of the branches to form a solid thallus is not, however, so common, nor is it carried to so high a pitch of elaboration as in the Rhodophyceae.
In such cases the vascular system is said to be polycyclic in contrast with the ordinary monocyclic condition, These internal strands or cylinders are to be regarded as peculiar types of elaboration of the stele, and probably act as reservoirs for water-storage which can be drawn upon when the water supply from the root is deficient.
An organ.ism the conditions of whose life render locomotion impossible great elaboration would seem superfluous.
In consequence of this, the rivers of Russia have been from remote antiquity the principal channels of trade and migration, and have contributed much more to the elaboration of national unity than any political institutions.
The decoration of mitres was characterized by increasing elaboration as time went on.
With all the majesty and stately elaboration and musical rhythm of Milton's finest prose, Taylor's styleis relieved and brightened by an astonishing variety of felicitous illustrations, ranging from the most homely and terse to the most dignified and elaborate.
With all their elaboration, these tables are, however, defective, as omitting some of the highest and most influential springs of action.
Special to the Heteropoda is the high elaboration of the lingual ribbon, and, as an agreement with some of the opisthobranchiate Euthyneura, but as a difference from the Pectinibranchia, we find the otocysts closely attached to the cerebral ganglia.
These dorsal eyes are very perfect in elaboration, possessing lens, retinal nerve-end cells, retinal pigment and optic nerve.
Elaboration in the form of the feelers, often a secondary sexual character in male insects, may result from a distal broadening of the segments, so that the appendage becomes serrate, or from the development of processes bearing sensory organs, so that the structure is pinnate or feather-like.
But in general we find that elaboration of imaginal structure is associated with degradation in the nature of the larva, cruciform and vermiform larvae being characteristic of the highest orders of the Hexapoda, so that unlikeness between parent and offspring has increased with the evolution of the class.
They afford an example - paralleled in other classes of the animal kingdom - of an order which, though specialized in some respects, retains many primitive characters, and has won its way to dominance rather by perfection of behaviour, and specially by the development of family life and helpful socialism, than by excessive elaboration of structure.
Along one line there was a gradual elaboration of the tube until it culminated, so far as structural complexity is concerned, in the so-called trapdoor nests or burrows of various families; along the other line the tubular retreat either retains its primitive simplicity in association with a new structure, the snare or net, or is entirely superseded by the latter.
It is then possible to define by a parallel elaboration what is meant by classes of classes, classes of relations, relations between classes, and so on.
It follows, too, that when there is a number of substances, all essential for the elaboration of living material, and when one of these is present in minimal proportion, that one substance rules the production, just as the effective strength of a chain depends on the weakest link.
This elaboration of the pontifical vestments was contemporaneous with, and doubtless partly determined by, the assimilation of the bishops during those centuries to the type of the great feudal nobles whose ambitions and love of pomp they shared.
576), the earliest of any elaboration that of Hrabanus Maurus (d.
These observations.were worked up and discussed by Gill with great elaboration in the Annals of the Cape Observatory, vols.
Thirdly, those members of a group which, whilst exhibiting undoubted structural characters indicative of their proper assignment to that group, yet are simpler than and inferior in elaboration of their organization to other members of the group, are not necessarily representatives of the earlier and primitive phases in the development of the group - but are very often examples of retrogressive change or degeneration.
It affects many or nearly all the structures of the body, but leaves some, it may be only one, at a high level of elaboration and complexity.
Ancestral simplicity is more uniform, and does not co-exist with specialization and elaboration of a single organ.
The highest point of elaboration in colour, pattern and form is shown by the great eye-painted tail feathers.
It is Dohrn's merit to have pointed out 1 that this assumption is not warranted, and that degeneration or progressive simplification of structure may have, and in many lines certainly has, taken place, as well as progressive elaboration and in other cases continuous maintenance of the status quo.
Bishop Stubbs belongs to the front rank of historical scholars both as an author and a critic. Among Englishmen at least he excels all others as a master of every department of the historian's work, from the discovery of materials to the elaboration of wellfounded theories and literary production.
Digestion, regarded not long ago as little more than a trituration and "coction" of ingesta to fit them for absorption and transfer them to the tissues, now appears as an elaboration of peptones and kindred intermediate products which, so far from being always bland, and mere bricks and mortar for repair or fuel for combustion, pass through phases of change during which they become so unfit for assimilation as to be positively poisonous.
In Egypt, however, no traces have at present been found of the industry in a rudimentary condition, and the vases which have been classified as " primitive " bear witness to an elaboration of technique far in advance of the experimental period.
The statistical contrasts are especially sharp and characteristic when we take into account the chronological sequence in the elaboration of laws.
It appears to be primarily related to the organs of attachment and to have attained greater elaboration than the rest of the nervous system because the proximal end is the most specialized and most stimulated portion of the worm.
Gold and silver had been applied to the adornment of helmets and breastplates from the 7th century, but it was in the 12th century that the decoration reached the high degree of elaboration shown us in the armour of the Japanese Bayard, Yoshitsune, which is still preserved at Kasuga, Nara.
They contain the essence of his conceptions, and much of their spiritual beauty and subtlety of expression was often lost in the elaboration of the finished picture.
No doubt the later indigitamenta (" bidding-prayers") which give us detailed lists of the spirits which preside over the various actions of the infant, or the stages in the marriage ceremony, or the agricultural operations of the farmer, are due in a large measure to deliberate pontifical elaboration, but they are a true indication of the Roman attitude of mind, which reveals itself continually in the analysis of the cults of the household or the festivals of the agricultural year.
Shaftesbury took great pains in the elaboration of his style, and he succeeded so far as to make his meaning transparent.
Most of the genera are " solitary " in habit, the female sex being undifferentiated; but among the humble-bees and hive-bees we find, as in social wasps and ants, the occurrence of workers, and the consequent elaboration of a wonderful insect-society.
The last elaboration of the insulated slip water-bottle by Ekman, Nansen and Pettersson has produced an instrument of great perfection, in which the insulation is effected by layers of water between a series of concentric ebonite cylinders, all of which are closed both above and below when the apparatus encloses a sample, and each of which in turn must be warmed considerably before there is any rise of temperature in the chamber within.
P. 273), differences in composition are mainly original, the denser and more anthracitic varieties representing plant substance which has been more completely macerated and deprived of its putrescible constituents before submergence, or of which the deposition had taken place in shallow water, more readily accessible to atmospheric oxidizing influences than the deeper areas where conditions favourable to the elaboration of compounds richer in hydrogen prevailed.
Rule, On Eadmer's Elaboration of the first four Books of "Historiae novorum" (1886); and Pere Ragey, Eadmer (Paris, 1892).
Having in his mind the scheme of his great work, he gave ample time to the elaboration of all its parts, and took care to obtain by personal observation a full knowledge of the various countries.
He recognized the fact that the shells of molluscs, which grow by successive additions, preserve unchanged the whole series of stages of their individual development, so that each shell of a Cretaceous ammonite, for example, represents five stages of progressive modification as follows: the first is the periode embryonnaire, during which the shell is smooth; the second and third represent periods of elaboration and ornamentation; the fourth is a period of initial degeneration; the fifth and last a period of degeneration when ornamentation becomes obsolete and the exterior smooth again, as in the young.
But if the inaccuracy of the fragment in this important respect is admitted the historical character of the whole episode breaks down and it is probably to be regarded as an apocryphal elaboration of Matt.
Sprache, xxii.) - devotes considerable space to the elaboration of the material supplied by the chronicles, the beginning of Arthur's reign, his marriage and wars with the Saxons.
Careful criticism of the narratives 3 has resulted in the separation of later accretions from the earliest records, and the tracing of the elaboration of older traditions under the influence of developing religious and social institutions.
Meanwhile a conference of the maritime powers was held in London in1908-1909for the elaboration of a code of international maritime law in time of war, to be applied in the international Court of Prize, which had been proposed in a convention signed ad referendum at the Hague Conference of 1907.
The cessation of persecution, and consequent gradual elaboration of church furniture and ritual, led to the employment of more costly materials for the altar as for the other fittings of ecclesiastical buildings.
His primary aim has been declared to be the advancement and elaboration of the theory of differential equations, and it was with this end in view that he developed his theory of transformation groups, set forth in his Theorie der Transf ormationsgruppen (3 vols., Leipzig, 1888-1893), a work of wide range and great originality, by which probably his name is best known.
They are distinguished from the other fungi and the rest of the Basidiales by the great variety of the spores and the great elaboration of the life-history to be found in many cases.
The elaboration of the scheme of the heavens traced out by P. S.