Petra (q.v.) or Sela` was the ancient capital of Edom; the Nabataeans must have occupied the old Edomite country, and succeeded to its commerce, after the Edomites took advantage of the Babylonian captivity to press forward into southern Judaea.'
1-5, refers to the expulsion of Edomites from their land) Malachi.
The history of the relations of the Edomites and Israelites may be briefly summarized.
By the constant westward pressure of the eastern Arabs, which (after the restraining force of the great Mesopotamian kingdoms was weakened) assumed irresistible strength, the ancient Edomites were forced across the Jordan-Araba depression, and with their name migrated to the south of western Palestine.
Apart from the weighty objections that the Edomites would have frustrated such a recrudescence of the remnant Jews as has been described, it must be remembered that the main stream of Jewish life and thought had been diverted to Babylon.
The Edomites, who had been almost extirpated by David in the valley of Salt, south of the Dead Sea, were now strong enough to seek revenge; and the powerful kingdom of Damascus, whose foundation is ascribed to this period, began to threaten Israel on the north and north-east.
Edomites), an attack upon Jerusalem, the removal of the palace treasures and of all the royal sons with the sole exception of Jehoahaz, i.e.
Rasun and Pekah directed their blows from the north, Philistia threatened the west flank, and the Edomites who drove out the Judaeans from Elath (on the Gulf of 'Akaba) were no doubt only taking their part in the concerted action.
Continued intercourse between Egypt, Gaza and north Arabia is natural in view of the trade-routes which connected them, and on several occasions joint action on the part of Edomites (with allied tribes) and the Philistines is recorded, or may be inferred.
The tradition that Edomites burned the Temple and occupied part of Judah (ib.
The proposal to read " Edomites " for " Syrians " in the list of bands which troubled Jehoiakim (2 Kings xxiv.
They were regarded as a branch of the Edomites (Gen.
Those, however, who place our prophet in the minority of King Joash draw a special argument from the mention of Phoenicians, Philistines and Edomites (iii.
7), when the Edomites joined the Chaldaeans, drew profit from the overthrow of the Jews, whose land they partly occupied, and exercised barbarous cruelty towards the fugitives of Jerusalem (Obad.
Between them and the Samaritans on the north and the Edomites on the south there was the most implacable hostility, which would probably be sufficient in itself to keep them from joining in the revolts in which other parts of Syria were involved..
Nothing certain is known of the marauding bands sent against Jehoiakim; for Syrians (Aram) one would expect Edomites (Edom), but see Jer.
It is necessary to realize Gaza's position and its links with trading centres, since conditions in the comparatively small and halfdesert land of Judah depended essentially upon its relations with the Edomites and Arabian tribes on the south-east and with the Philistines on the west.
3) it is stated that the prohibition against intermarriage with the Moabites, Ammonites, Egyptians and Edomites, though given in the Bible, only applied for a certain number of generations and did not apply at all to their daughters, but, it is added, "Bastards and Nethinim are prohibited (to marry Israelites), and this prohibition is perpetual and applies both to males and females."
In later days the Edomites held it for a time, but Judas Maccabaeus recovered it.
Although they were repulsed, this awakening of a land which has so often fed Palestine and Syria, when viewed with the increasing weakness of Assyria, and subsequent vicissitudes in the history of the Edomites, Nabataeans and East Jordan tribes, forbids us to treat the invasion as an isolated raid.
Scattered evidence suggests that the Edomites were responsible for a new catastrophe.
A few centuries later, the Edomites (Idumaeans) were again closely connected with the Jews; an Idumaean dynasty - that of the Herods - ruled in Judah, and once more there must have been a considerable amount of intermixture.
He subdued the Edomites and compelled them to become Jews.
In this case, as in that of the Edomites, it is natural to suppose that there existed already a nucleus of professing Jews which made the wholesale conversion possible.
Probably " cave-dwellers," the predecessors of the Edomites (Gen.
No doubt, as a general rule, the relations between Edomites and the "sons of the east" (Ezek.
Claims to have overthrown the Saaru among the tribes of the Shasu, and the identification of this name with Seir is usually recognized, although it is naturally uncertain whether the Edomites of Old Testament tradition are meant.
According to the latter, the Edomites were a new race who drove out the Horites from Mt.
Xxxvi., implies that the Edomites consisted of a number of local groups with chieftains, with a monarchy which, however, was not hereditary but due to the supremacy of stronger leaders.
3 That the Edomites preserved this tradition of Saul's sovereignty and (from their standpoint) enrolled him among their kings (Gen.
That Edomites burned the temple after the destruction of Jerusalem (1 Esd.
In 734 Ahaz became king of Judah, and Rezon (Rasun, Rezin), the king of Damascus at the time, came up against him; at the same time the Edomites and the Philistines revolted.
But even in the period of disintegration the minor princes of the Delta were no doubt associated with their eastern neighbours, and although the Assyrian Musri stands in the same relation to the people of Philistia as do the Edomites and allied tribes of the Old Testament, Philistia itself was always intimately associated with Egypt.
31-39), and the record concludes with the" dukes "of Esau, the father of the Edomites (vv.
At the same time the Edomites recovered Elath on the Gulf of Akabah (so read in 2 Kings xvi.
For "Esau" as a designation of the Edomites, cf.
In the day of Jerusalem's, overthrow the Edomites rejoiced over the calamity, grasped at a share of the spoil, lay in wait to cut off the fugitives (vers.
7) upon Edom, which had resulted, by 312 B.C. at latest, in the occupation by Arabs of Petra, the chief city of the Edomites (Wellhausen, p. 214).
For a sketch of the history of the Edomites, see Noldeke's article "Edom" in the Ency.
Henceforth, the new home of the Edomites is consequently known as Idumaea.