At the junction of 2 D the Cauches with that river, that Ecuadorean line descends the Chinchipe to the Maranon, and the Peruvian ascends to a point where it is intersected by a line following the eastern Cordillera northward to the head-waters of the Caqueta, or Japura, which forms the northern boundary down to the Brazilian frontier.
In 1903 there were encounters between small bodies of Peruvian and Ecuadorean troops on the disputed frontier.
Cayambe, or Cayembi, the second highest peak of the Ecuadorean Andes, has the noteworthy distinction of standing very nearly on the equator.
Iliniza, which stands west by north of Cotopaxi, has two pyramidal peaks, and is one of the most interesting mountains of the Ecuadorean group. It stands at the western end of the Tiupullo ridge, and overlooks the Quito basin to the north-east.
Perhaps no Ecuadorean volcano is better known than Pichincha, the " boiling mountain," because of its destructive eruptions and its proximity to the city of Quito.
The Gulf of Guayaquil, which lies between the Ecuadorean and Peruvian coasts, is the largest gulf on the Pacific coast of South America between Panama and Chiloe.
It lies in the north-east part of the gulf, and is separated from the Ecuadorean mainland by the Morro channel, and from the southern mainland by the wider and deeper Jambeli channel.
The flora of the Quito basin has been well studied by various European botanists, more especially by Dr William Jameson (1796-1873) of the university of Quito, who began the preparation of a synopsis of the Ecuadorean flora in 1864-1865 (Synopsis plantarum Quitensium, 2 vols., Quito, 1865).
The Ecuadorean owl is the Bubo nigrescens.
Several lines were also projected, two to penetrate the Ecuadorean montana.