That originality and independence became more conspicuous when he reached his second stage as a political economist, struggling forward towards the standpoint from which his systematic work was written.
CHARLES GANILH (1758-1836), French economist and politician, was born at Allanche in Cantal on the 6th of January 1758.
As to his position as an economist, opinion is also divided.
Burton was pre-eminently a jurist and economist, and may be said to have been guided by accident into the path which led him to celebrity.
Lowe was a rather cut-anddry economist, who prided himself that during his four years of office he took twelve millions off taxation; but later opinion has hardly accepted his removal of the shilling registration duty on corn (1869) as good statesmanship, and his failures are remembered rather than his successes.
"IRVING FISHER (1867-), American economist, was born at Saugerties, N.Y., Feb.
ANNE ROBERT JACQUES TURGOT, BARON DE LAUNE (1727-1781), French statesman and economist, was born in Paris on the 10th of May 1727.
HENRI CERNUSCHI (1821-1896), Italian politician and economist, was born of wealthy parents at Milan in 1821, and was destined for the legal profession.
PELLEGRINO LUIGI EDOARDO ROSSI, Count (1787-1848), Italian economist and statesman, was born at Carrara on the z3th of July 1787.
As a statesman, Rossi was a man of signal ability and intrepid character, but it is as an economist that his name will be best remembered.
The economist frankly assumes the reality of the existing world and takes men as they are, or as they have been if he is studying past times.
Whether a modern economist accepts his views or not is of no importance.
MICHEL CHEVALIER (1806-1879), French economist, was born at Limoges on the 13th of January 1806.
JEAN BAPTISTE SAY (1767-1832), French economist, was born at Lyons on the 5th of January 1767.
In his general conception of human affairs there is a tendency to regard too exclusively the material side of things, which made him pre-eminently the economist of the French liberal bourgeoisie.
ADAM SMITH (1723-1790), English economist, was the only child of Adam Smith, comptroller of the customs at Kirkcaldy in Fifeshire, Scotland, and of Margaret Douglas, daughter of Mr Douglas of Strathendry, near Leslie.
ERNST ENGEL (1821-1896), German political economist and statistician, was born in Dresden on the 21st of March 1821.
LUDWIG BAMBERGER (1823-1899), German economist and politician, was born of Jewish parents on the 22nd of July 1823 at Mainz.
¦ A movement set on foot at the instance of Edward Atkinson, the well-known Boston economist, and warmly supported by the Massachusetts State Board of Trade, seeks to establish by treaty neutral zones from the ports of North America to the ports of Great Britain and Ireland and the continent of Europe, within which zones steamship and sailing vessels in the conduct of lawful commerce should be free to pass without seizure or interruption in time of war.
ROBERT HAMILTON (1743-1829), Scottish economist and mathematician, was born at Pilrig, Edinburgh, on the 11th of June 1743.
SIR ROBERT GIFFEN (1837-1910), British statistician and economist, was born at Strathaven, Lanarkshire.
In 1868 he became Walter Bagehot's assistant-editor on the Economist; and his services were also secured in 1873 as cityeditor of the Daily News, and later of The Times.
STEFANO JACINI, Count (1827-1891), Italian statesman and economist, was descended from an old and wealthy Lombard family.
His strength lay in his power as an original thinker rather than as a critic; and he will be remembered by his constructive work as logician, economist and statistician.
DAVID RICARDO (1772-1823), English economist, was born in London on the 19th of April 1772, of Jewish origin.
PIERRE LE PESANT BOISGUILBERT, SIEUR DE (1676-1714), French economist, was born at Rouen of an ancient noble family of Normandy, allied to that of Corneille.
JOHN STUART MILL (1806-1873), English philosopher and economist, son of James Mill, was born on the 10th of May 1806 in his father's house in Pentonville, London.
The economist should be a man of wide sympathies and practical sagacity, in close touch with men of different grades, and, if possible, experienced in affairs.
But if the economist, while studying one side of man's activities, must also cultivate all other branches of human learning, it is obvious that no substantial progress can be made.
In the history of economics or the biography of Ricardo it is of interest to show that he anticipated later writers, or that his analysis bears the test of modern criticism; but no economist is under any obligation to defend Ricardo's reputation, nor is the fact that a doctrine is included in his works to be taken as a demonstration of its truth.
When the aim of the man of affairs and the hypothesis of the economist was unrestricted competition, and measures were being adopted to realize it, general theory such as the classical economists provided was perhaps a sufficiently trustworthy guide for practical statesmen and men of business.
By a study of this work we are led to the conclusion that he was an economist only, not at all a social philosopher in the wider sense, like Adam Smith or John Mill.
GUSTAVE CHARLES FAGNIEZ (1842-), French historian and economist, was born in Paris on the 6th of October 1842.
Besides Kuhschwanz, a peculiar kind of beer, it manufactures tobacco, cigars, shoes and hosiery; and coal-mining is carried on in the neighbourhood, It was the birthplace of the naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (1795-1876), and the political economist Hermann Schulze-Delitzsch (1808-1883), to the latter of whom a statue has been erected.
ROBERT JAMES WALKER (1801-1869), American political leader and economist, was born in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, on the 23rd of July 1801.
THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS (1766-1834), English economist, was born in 1766 at the Rookery, near Guildford, Surrey, a small estate owned by his father, Daniel Malthus, a gentleman of good family and independent fortune, of considerable culture, the friend and correspondent of Rousseau and one of his executors.
It follows from Quesnay's theoretic views that the one thing deserving the solicitude of the practical economist and the statesman is the increase of the net product; and he infers also what Smith afterwards affirmed, on not quite the same ground, that the interest of the landowner is "strictly and indissolubly connected with the general interest of the society."
EUGEN KARL DUHRING (1833-1901), German philosopher and political economist, was born on the 12th of January 1833 at Berlin.
Wetzel, " Benjamin Franklin as an Economist," No.
The last duke of Charost, Armand Joseph de Bethune (1738-1800), French economist and philanthropist, served in the army during the Seven Years' War, after which he retired to his estates in Berry, where, and also in Brittany and Picardy, he sought to ameliorate the lot of his peasants by abolishing feudal dues, and introducing reforms in agriculture.
By his practical experiments and by his writings he gained a considerable reputation as an economist; but his ambition was not content with this, and he sought to extend his influence by joining first the Freemasons and afterwards (1779) the Rosicrucians.
ANTOINE AUGUSTIN COURNOT (1801-1877), French economist and mathematician, was born at Gray (Haute-Saone) on the 28th of August 1801.