An echocardiogram and chest x rays may be done to evaluate the infant for any other possible abnormalities, including cardiac defects and abnormal development of the pancreas, which is often associated with duodenal obstruction.
The decision to have prenatal surgery is made on the basis of detailed ultrasound imaging of the fetus, including an echocardiogram that uses ultrasound to obtain images of the fetal heart, as well as other diagnostic tools.
The examination should include an echocardiogram taken by a cardiologist, a slit-lamp eye examination by an ophthalmologist, and a work-up of the child's spinal column by an orthopedic specialist.
Echocardiogram (echo): A graphic outline of the heart's movement, valves and chambers, used to determine if the stroke was caused by a blood clot traveling from the heart to the brain.
In terms of the cardiac examination, a standard electrocardiogram (EKG) is not sufficient for diagnosis; only the echocardiogram can detect possible enlargement of the aorta.
Within 24 hours after the closure device implant procedure, a chest x ray, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram are performed to ensure that the device is properly placed.
After a child has been diagnosed with Marfan, he or she should be monitored with an echocardiogram every six months until it is clear that the aorta is not growing larger.
If the echocardiogram does not allow the physician to visualize all portions of the aorta, CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may be used.
An annual echocardiogram is recommended to evaluate any adverse effect chemotherapy may have had on the heart, and CT scans are performed every six months.
A chest x ray, electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG), echocardiogram (echo), or magnetic resonance imaging MRI) can confirm the presence of an atrial septal defect.