- Colony of Hydractinia echinata, growthemselves; or, ing on the Shell of a Whelk.
Formerly this coast region furnished large quantities of Brazil-wood (Caesalpinia echinata), and the river valleys have long been the principal source of Brazil's best cabinet-wood - rosewood (Dalbergia nigra), jacaranda (Machaeriumfirmum,Benth.),vinhatico (Plathymenia foliosa, Benth.), peroba (Aspidosperma peroba), cedro, &c. The exotic mangabeira (mango) is found everywhere along the coast, together with the bamboo, orange, lemon, banana, cashew, &c.
The principal products of this class are india-rubber, mate, Brazil nuts, vegetable wax, palm fibre, cabinet woods, and medicinal leaves, roots, resins, &c. Before the discovery of the cheaper aniline colours, dye-woods were among the most valuable products of the country; in fact, Brazil derives her name from that of a dye-wood (Brazil-wood-Caesalpinia echinata), known as bresill, brasilly, bresilji, braxilis, or brasile long before the discovery of America (see Humboldt's Geographie du nouveau continent, tom.
Endless masses of tall weeds, belonging to a few species, cover the face of the country - large Cruciferae, Cynareae and Umbelliferae - also large quantities of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and echinata) and Lagonychium, and the white ears of the Imperata.
Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata), valuable for its timber and colouring extract, and "roco" (Bixa orellana), the "urucn" of Brazil which furnishes the anatto of commerce, are widely distributed in central and southern Colombia, and another species of the first-named genus, the C. coariaria, produces the "divi-divi" of the Colombian export trade - a peculiarly shaped seed-pod, rich in tannic and gallic acids, and used for tanning leather.