Billot, S.J., De Ecclesia Christi (3 vols., Rome, 1898-1900); or G.
Wilmers, S.J., De Christi Ecclesia (Regensburg, 1897).
It was found that the government by Boule and Ecclesia did not mean popular control in the full sense; it meant government by the leisured classes, inasmuch as the industrious farmer or herdsman could not leave his work to give his vote at the Ecclesia, or do his duty as a councillor.
Metropolitan Church, or Ecclesia Ursiana, and baptistery adjoining .
In Athens in the sixth prytany of each year the representatives of the Boule asked the Ecclesia whether it was for the welfare of the state that ostracism should take place.
Grote and others hold that six thousand had to be given against one person before he was ostracized, but it seems unlikely that the attendance at the Ecclesia ever admitted of so large a vote against one man, and the view is contradicted by Plut.
The Greek ecclesiastes means one who takes part in the deliberations of an assembly (ecclesia), a debater or speaker in an assembly (Plato, Gorgias, 452 E), and this is the general sense of the Hebrew word.
There can be little doubt that the Pnyx was the seat of an ancient cult; the meetings of the Ecclesia were of a religious character and were preceded by a sacrifice to Zeus 'Ayopa70s; nor is it conceivable that, but for its sacred associations, a site would have been chosen so unsuitable for the purposes of a popular assembly as to need the addition of a costly artificial auditorium.
By making effective the powers of the Ecclesia (Popular Assembly) the Boule (Council) and Heliaea, Cleisthenes became the true founder of Athenian democracy.
The reference to affranchisement in ecclesia shows that it was composed at a period subsequent to the conversion of the Alamanni to Christianity.
The consciousness of being in the line of apostolic succession helped the English clergy to revert to the principle Ecclesia est in episcopo, and the great periodical conferences of Anglican bishops from all parts of the world have something of the character, though they do not claim the ecumenical authority, of the general councils of the early Church (see Lambeth Conferences).
To the north-west lies the parish of Terregles, said to be a corruption of Tir-eglwys (terra ecclesia, that is, "Kirk land").
The members of this ecclesiola in ecclesia pledged themselves "to join together in the Christian profession, to follow Christ the Lord as the righteousness of his people, to walk together in brotherly love, and in the duties of it, in subjection to Mr Glas as their overseer in the Lord, to observe the ordinance of the Lord's Supper once every month, to submit themselves to the Lord's law for removing offences," &c. (Matt.
An important event must be referred probably to the year 451, - the law of Pericles, by which citizenship (including the right to vote in the Ecclesia and to sit on paid juries) was restricted to those who could prove themselves the children of an Athenian father and mother (E d,u001v avroiv).
If there was any difference of opinion the matter was referred to the Ecclesia for settlement.
In the Ecclesia a private citizen might propose another assessment, or the case might be referred to the law courts.
C. Gorham to the benefice of Brampford Speke in spite of the latter's acknowledged disbelief in the doctrine of baptismal regeneration, brought to a crisis the position within the Church of England of those who believed in that Church as a legitimate part of the infallible Ecclesia docens.
Fn6 Matthew Paris gives a letter from Philip, prior of the Dominicans in Palestine, which reached the pope in 1237, and which speaks of a prelate from whom he had received several letters, "qui praeest omnibus quos Nestoriana haeresis ab ecclesia separavit (cujus praelatio per Indiam Majorem, et per regnum sacerdotis Johannis, et per regna magis proxima Orienti dilatatur)."
South of Prague, and partly at Krakowitz in the immediate neighbourhood of the capital, occasionally giving a course of open-air preaching, but finding his chief employment in maintaining that copious correspondence of which some precious fragments still are extant, and in the composition of the treatise, De Ecclesia, which subsequently furnished most of the material for the capital charges brought against him, and was formerly considered the most important of his works, though it is mainly a transcript of Wycliffe's work of the same name.
Autograph copies of his work De Ecclesia and of the controversial tracts which he had written against Paletz and Stanislaus of Znaim having been acknowledged by him, the extracted propositions on which the prosecution based their charge of heresy were read; but as soon as the accused began to enter upon his defence, he.
The propositions which had been extracted from the De Ecclesia were again brought up, and the relations between Wycliffe and Huss were discussed, the object of the prosecution being to fasten upon the latter the charge of having entirely adopted the doctrinal system of the former, including especially a denial of the doctrine of transubstantiation.
On the 8th of June the propositions extracted from the De Ecclesia were again taken up with some fulness of detail; some of these he repudiated as incorrectly given, others he defended; but when asked to make a general recantation he steadfastly declined, on the ground that to do so would be a dishonest admission of previous guilt.
The De Ecclesia was published by Ulrich von Hutten in 1520; other controversial writings by Otto Brumfels in 1524; and Luther wrote an interesting preface to Epistolae Quaedam, which were published in 1537.
Largely influenced by his mother, he decided to take holy orders, and in July 1626 he was appointed prebendary of Layton Ecclesia (Leighton Bromswold), Huntingdon.
The Reformation was thus essentially a stage in the disengaging of the modern state from that medieval, international ecclesiastical state which had its beginning in the ecclesia of the Acts of the Apostles.
It would seem as if this sharp, uncompromising reaction was what was needed to produce a popular realization of the contrast between the Ecclesia anglicana of Henry VIII.
In the exercise of its duty as the protector of the laws it must have had power to inhibit in the Four Hundred, or in the Ecclesia, a measure which it judged unconstitutional or in any way prejudicial to the state, and in the levy of fines for violation of law or moral usage it remained irresponsible.
Following up this advantage, Ephialtes (462 B.C.), and less prominently Archestratus and Pericles, proposed and carried measures for the transfer of most of its functions to the Council of Five Hundred, the Ecclesia, and the popular courts of law (Arist.
Among these functions were probably jurisdiction in cases of impiety, the supervision of magistrates and the censorship of the morals of citizens, the inhibition of illegal and unconstitutional resolutions in the Five Hundred and the Ecclesia, the examination into the fitness of candidates for office, and the collection of rents from the sacred property (cf.
The Council will rely chiefly upon Scripture s in reformandis dogmatibus et instaurandis in ecclesia moribus; the Roman reply to the two sets of articuli of Augsburg, and the Roman counterpart to the (later) Protestant assertion that the Bible 7 is the " only rule of faith and practice."
As Christianity passed to Gentile soil, the sovereign assembly (ecclesia) of privileged citizens in each Greek city furnished an analogy to the latter usage.
Writing of the unity of the church as set forth by Paul in Ephesians, Dr Hort (The Christian Ecclesia, p. 168) says: " Not a word in the epistle exhibits the One Ecclesia as made up of many Ecclesiae.
To each local Ecclesia St Paul has ascribed a corresponding unity of its own; each is a body of Christ and a sanctuary of God: but there is no grouping of them into partial wholes or into one great whole.
The members which make up the One Ecclesia are not communities but individual men.
The One Ecclesia includes all members of all partial Ecclesiae; but its relations to them all are direct, not mediate.
St Paul anxiously promoted friendly intercourse and sympathy between the scattered Ecclesiae; but the unity of the universal Ecclesia as he contemplated it does not belong to this region: it is a bulk of theology and religion, not a fact of what we call ecclesiastical politics."
" The Ecclesia itself, i.e.
So says Dr Hort (p. 229), adding that " the very origin and fundamental nature of the Ecclesia as a community of disciples renders it impossible that the principle should rightly become obsolete."
3 ff.); and on the other by the recognition of such gifts by the inspired common consciousness of each Ecclesia (I Cor.
Such consecration, however, whatever its form, was a function of the local Ecclesia as a whole, acting through those of its members most fitted by gift or standing to be its representatives on the occasion.
The local Ecclesia in the Apostolic age was itself responsible for the conduct of its members (i Cor.
But " congregational " (due to the rendering of ecclesia by " congregation " in early English Bibles) appears about 1642, to judge from the New English Dictionary.
Cyprian, Ep. 33, " ecclesia super episcopos constituitur "; 66, " ecclesia in episcopo "; also Ep. 59, and De unitate eccles.
APELLA, the official title of the popular assembly at Sparta, corresponding to the ecclesia in most other Greek states.
The cup is not the blood of Jesus, but the holy vine of David, revealed through Jesus; and the holy vine can but signify the spiritual Israel, the Ecclesia or church or Messianic Kingdom, into which the faithful are to be gathered.
The one loaf, as in Paul, symbolizes the unity of the ecclesia, but the cup and bread, given for enjoyment, are symbols at best of the spiritual food and drink of the life eternal given of grace by the Almighty Father through his servant (lit.
It belongs to the same order of ideas that the headship of the Messianic ecclesia in Judea was assigned after the death of Jesus to his eldest brother James, and after him for several generations to the eldest living representative of his family.
Biblica, 3113 seq.); the opposite position is stated excellently by Hort (Christian Ecclesia, 1898, 189 seq.) and Dr T.
It derives its name - Church (ecclesia) Island - from the little church of St Magnus, now in ruins, consisting of a chancel 15 ft.
Kirkko, &c.), a word originally applied to the building used for Christian worship, and subsequently extended to the Christian community (ecclesia) itself.