It is a very old town, with high earthen walls and twelve gates, commanded by a fort.
It is surrounded by a thick earthen wall, nearly 4 m.
Rude earthen or stockaded forts, serving as magazines and places of retreat, were erected; or in some cases use was made of strongholds already existing, such as Dun Almain in Kildare, Dunlavin in Wicklow and Fermoy in Cork.
She opened the door and stepped across the threshold and onto the cold, damp earthen floor of the passage.
- e,f, Owl moth (Heliothis armigera); a,b, egg, highly magnified; c, larva or caterpillar; d, pupa in earthen cell.
The Mexicans were also skilful makers of earthen pots, in which were cooked the native beans called by the Spanish frijoles, and the various savoury stews still in vogue.
There is no serious difficulty in so constructing walls of this kind as to be practically water-tight while they remain unbroken; but owing to the settlement of the earthen embankments and the changing level of saturation they are undoubtedly subject to irregular stresses which cannot be calculated, and under which, speaking generally, plastic materials are much safer.
In Bengal a small sheet-iron scoop or " seetoah" is used for scraping off the dried juice, and, as it becomes filled, the opium is emptied into an earthen pot carried for the purpose.
It was probably suggested to Ctesibius by the Egyptian Wheel or Noria, which was common at that time, and which was a kind of chain pump, consisting of a number of earthen pots carried round by a wheel.
The town is surrounded by an earthen enceinte or rampart with some forts on the hills just above it, and others on the Deveboyun ridge facing east, the whole forming a position of considerable strength.
In more modern times there has been the same excavation of shallow pits, and sluicing, sifting and sorting, by hand labour, the only machinery used being chain pumps made of earthen bowls to remove the water from the deeper pits.
The grease is melted over fires kindled at the cavern's mouth, run into earthen pots, and preserved for use in cooking as well as for the lighting of lamps.
The opium is collected in March and April, and the crude drug or " chick " is thrown into an earthen vessel and covered with linseed oil to prevent evaporation.
Both the Neuadd and the Fisher Tarn dams are largely dependent upon the support of earthen embankments with much economy and with perfectly satisfactory results.
Something has been said of the failures of earthen dams. Many masonry dams have also failed, but, speaking generally, we know less of the causes which have led to such failures.
Here and there were large villages that had grown up about groups of houses surrounded by an earthen mound or rampart; similar groups enclosed in this manner were also to be found without any annexed hamlet.
Indeed, the Strict Baptists are themselves divided into the "Standard" and "Vessel" parties - names derived from the "Gospel Standard" and "Earthen Vessel," the organs of the rival groups.
In order to get rid of this fluid, called " pasewa " or " pussewah," the opium is placed in a shallow earthen vessel tilted on one side, and the pussewah drained off.
Dams Any well-made earthen embankment of moderate height, and of such thickness and uniformity of construction as to ensure freedom from excessive percolation at any point, will in the course of time become almost impermeable to surface water standing against it; and when permeable rocks are covered with many feet of soil, the leakage through such soil from standing water newly placed above it generally diminishes rapidly, and in process of time often ceases entirely.
Throughout Great Britain there are still many reservoirs, with earthen dams, which cannot safely be filled; and others which, after remaining for years in this condition, have been repaired.
In some cases, as, for example, when a high earthen embankment crosses a gorge, and there is plenty of stone to be had, it is desirable to place the outer bank upon a toe or platform of rubble stonework, as in fig.
On the Titicus, a tributary of the Croton river, an earthen dam was completed in 1895, with a concrete core wall zoo ft.
The Kalmucks and Circassians of the Kuban attacked it repeatedly in the r 7th century, so that it had to be fortified by a strong earthen and palisaded wall, traces of which are still visible.
The pupal stage is passed in an earthen cell, just beneath the surface of the ground.
Settlements belonging to the Stone age, and manufactories of stone implements, burial-grounds of the Bronze epoch, earthen forts and burial-mounds (kurgans) - of this last four different types are known, the earliest belonging to the Bronze period - are superposed, rendering the task of unravelling their several relations one of great difficulty.
In Berlin, on the Stadtbahn - which for a part of its length traverses private property - masonry arches, or earthen embankments between retaining walls, were substituted for the metallic structure wherever possible.
Lubbock (Lord Avebury) states that the common British yellow ants (Lasius flavus) collect flocks of root-feeding aphids in their underground nests, protect them, build earthen shelters over them, and take the greatest care of their eggs.
The pupae in most of these pests are found in an earthen cocoon beneath the ground, or in some cases above ground (Lophyrus pini).
A strong earthen rampart, flanked with bastions and redoubts, surrounded the City, its liberties, Westminster and Southwark, making an immense enclosure.
Pliny shows that for this purpose the gold was placed on the fire in an earthen vessel with treble its weight of salt, and that it was afterwards again exposed to the fire with two parts of salt and one of argillaceous rock, which, in the presence of moisture, effected the decomposition of the salt; by this means the silver became converted into chloride.
In breadth, the surface of the plain, strewn over its whole extent with pieces of pottery and crumbling bricks, and also broken here and there by earthen mounds and ruined walls, the debris of palatial structures which at one time were the glory and wonder of the East.
At the junction of the two arms of the Rhine stands the old castle (De Burcht), a circular tower built on an earthen mound.
Farther E., close to the village of Walkerburn, are Purvis Hill terraces, a remarkable series of earthen banks, from So ft.
Rough Castle, near Falkirk, is very much smaller; it is remarkable for the astonishing strength of its turf-built and earthen ramparts and ravelins, and for a remarkable series of defensive pits, reminiscent of Caesar's lilia at Alesia, plainly intended to break an enemy's charge, and either provided with stakes to impale the assailant or covered over with hurdles or the like to deceive him.
Besides busts and figurines, which belong as a rule to the Greek period, the smaller objects usually found are earthen pitchers and lamps, glass-wares, tesserae and gems. Of buildings which can be called architectural few specimens now exist on Phoenician soil, for the reason that for ages the inhabitants have used the ruins as convenient quarries.
The earthen dikes are protected by stone-slopes and by piles, and at the more dangerous points also by zinkstukken (sinking pieces), artificial structures of brushwood laden with stones, and measuring some 400 yds.
A step higher than these is the rude water-wheel, with earthen pots on an endless chain running round it, worked by one or two bullocks.
Along each edge of the river and following its course has been erected an earthen embankment high enough not to be topped by the highest floods.
Afterwards a population to whom bronze was known left traces in earthen walls and kitchen-middens on the Bay of Aniva.
The idea of the Roman Church was imperfectly embodied at the best; the divine gift was in earthen vessels.
"The articles manufactured from jute are principally (I) gunny bags; (2) string, rope and cord; (3) kampa, a net-like bag for carrying wood or hay on bullocks; (4) chat, a strip of stuff for tying bales of cotton or cloth; (5) dola, a swing on which infants are rocked to sleep; (6) shika, a kind of hanging shelf for little earthen pots, &c.; (7) dulina, a floor-cloth; (8) beera, a small circular stand for wooden plates used particularly in poojahs; (9) painter's brush and brush for white-washing; (io) ghunsi, a waist-band worn next to the skin; (II) gochh-dari, a hair-band worn by women; (12) mukbar, a net bag used as muzzle for cattle; (13) parchula, false hair worn by players; (14) rakhi-bandhan, a slender arm-band worn at the Rakhi-poornima festival; and (15) dhup, small incense sticks burned at poojahs."
He refused their gifts, saying that earthen dishes were good enough for him, adding that he preferred ruling those who possessed gold to possessing it himself.
These are made by heating a circular-ridged earthen plate over a slow fire, and spreading the petals, a few at a time, over its surface.
8 is a part longitudinal section through the puddle wall of an earthen embankment.
7, by which means the height of the earthen portion is reduced and complete drainage secured.
The Moat or Moot hill at the south end of the town - an earthen mound 30 ft.
The furniture consists of earthen bowls, drinking-cups, wooden neck-rests, spoons, &c., artistically carved, mats, plaited baskets and boxes.
In some cicads the mature nymph ceases to feed and remains quiescent within a pillar-shaped earthen chamber.
In the 11th century the area was enclosed by earthen ramparts, with bastions and gateways; but of these the only surviving remnant is the Golden Gate.
Here they dwell in the "raths," old earth-forts, or earthen bases of later palisaded dwellings of the Norman period, and in the subterranean houses, common also in Scotland.
These pile-villages were often surrounded by an earthen rampart within which the huts were erected in more or less regular order.
On other occasions also Vamacharis commonly offer animal sacrifices, usually one or more kids; the head of the victim, which has to be severed by a single stroke, being always placed in front of the image of the goddess as a blood-offering (bali), with an earthen lamp fed with ghee burning above it, whilst the flesh is cooked and served to the guests attending the ceremony, except that of buffaloes, which is given to the low-caste musicians who perform during the service.
The building of this altar is spread over a whole year, during which period the sacrificer has to carry about the sacrificial fire in an earthen pan for at least some time each day, until it is finally deposited on the completed altar to serve as the offering-fire for the Soma oblations.