This slip is then passed through a transmitter fitted with brush contacts and connected to the two line wires of a metallic loop. One circuit is formed by the loop itself, and a second, quite independent, by the two wires in parallel, earthed at each end.
In subsequent years numerous experiments were carried out by him in various parts of Great Britain, in some cases with circuits earthed at both ends, and in other cases with completely insulated circuits, which showed that conductive effects could be detected at distances of many miles, and also that inductive effects could take place even between circuits separated by solid earth and by considerable distances.
In 1892, on the Bristol Channel, he established communication between Lavernock Point and an island called Flat Holme in that channel by placing at these positions insulated single-wire circuits, earthed at both ends and laid as far as possible parallel to each other, the distance between them being 3.3 m.
By stretching on the island and mainland parallel wire circuits earthed at each end, good telephonic communication over an average distance of 62 m.
Elec. Eng., 27, p. 938.) It may be explained as follows: - Suppose a battery on shore to have one pole earthed and the other connected to an insulated submarine cable, the distant end of which was also earthed; if now a galvanometer is inserted anywhere in the cable, a current will be found flowing through the cable and returning by various paths through the sea.
If we suppose the cable interrupted at any place, and both sides of the gap earthed by connexion to plates, then the same conditions will still hold.
A cable is carried out from the mainland at Crookhaven for 7 m., and the outer end earthed by connexion with a copper mushroom anchor.
Another earthed cable starts from a similar anchor about 100 ft.
Away near the shore line of the Fastnet rock, crosses the rock, and is again earthed in the sea at the distant end.
He showed that in a simple Marconi antenna the variations of potential are a maximum at the insulated top and a minimum at the base, whilst the current amplitudes are a maximum at the top earthed end and zero at the top end.
He overcame the difficulty by erecting a vertical earthed receiving antenna like a lightning rod and attached a lateral extension to it at a yard or two above the earthed end.
He showed that if an antenna were constructed with a short part of its length vertical and the greater part horizontal, the lower end of the vertical part being earthed, and if oscillations were created in it, electric waves were sent out most powerfully in the plane of the antenna and in the direction opposite to that in which the free end pointed.
The single-wire earthed circuits used in the early days of telephony were subject to serious disturbances from the induction caused by currents in neighbouring telegraph and electric light wires, and from the varying potential of the earth due to natural or artificial causes.
So the potential distribution in the space due to the electric point-charge +q as A together with -q at B is the same as that due to +q at A and the negative induced charge erected on the infinite plane (earthed) metal sheet placed half-way between A and B.
The plants are duly watered and earthed up as they advance in growth.
Like that vegetable, also, they are earthed over to keep them longer fit for consumption; and they afford a continuous supply during the whole year, though it is more abundant in autumn.