He was, however, in practice permitted to enjoy and accumulate chance earnings or savings, or a share of what he produced, under the name of peculium.
The earnings per train-mile vary greatly; but for all the lines the average is 7s.
Such crude attempts as were made to prevent rates from being excessive concerned themselves with profits, and were designed to confiscate for the state treasury any earnings beyond a certain prescribed dividend.
It made provision for publicity of rates and for due notice of any change in rates; it forbade pooling of freight or earnings, and required annual reports from the carriers.
To provide for the repayment from earnings of the capital invested in a mining property and expended in development, and to provide for the depreciation in value of the plant and equipment, an amortization fund must be accumulated during the life of the mine; or, if it be desired to continue the business of mining elsewhere, a similar fund must be created for the purchase, development and equipment of a new property to take the place of the original deposit when that shall be exhausted.
The gross earnings of all the lines during the fiscal year I 9051906 were 7 millions sterling, approximately, and the gross expenses (including the payment of interest on loans and debentures) were under 31/8 millions, so that there remained a net profit of 31/8 millions, being at the rate of a little over 81/8% on the invested capital.
Of his professional earnings, the small sum for which, as we have seen, he gave up his offices, and the expression of Fontenelle that he practised "sans gout et sans succes," are sufficient proof.
The capital expended on government lines up to 1905 was £3,920,500; the gross earnings in that year were £ 2 43,5 66, and the working expenses £171,630; leaving £71,936 as.
5d., making the net earnings 2s.
The revenues of the state come from two sources; about two-thirds from taxation and about one-third in all from the earnings of the penitentiary, from the fees collected by state officials, from the proceeds from the sale of state publications, and from the dividends from stock and bonds.
It may, however, be noticed that the period 1850-1903 was marked by a steady increase of the cash wages of the farm labourer, as indicated in the following table from the Report on the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers issued by the Board of Trade in 1905.
The penitentiary is to a large extent self-supporting; in1903-1904the earnings were $3493.80 in excess of the costs, but in1904-1906the costs exceeded the earnings by $9044.
The most scientific procedure, however, is to calculate the probable earnings of the immigrant during the rest of his lifetime, and deduct therefrom his expenses of living.
The remainder represents his net earnings which he will contribute to the well-being of the new country.
So, too, the immigrant is worth his future net earnings to the community only if there is a demand for his labour.
The Maltese have to pay for food imports by imperial wages, earned' in connexion with naval and military services, by commercial services to passing steamers and visitors, by earnings which emigrants send home from northern Africa and elsewhere, and by interest on investments of Maltese capital abroad.
With regard to the earnings of nurses in general, the salaries paid in hospitals have already been mentioned; for private work the scales in force at different institutions vary considerably, according to the other advantages and benefits provided.
At some the nurses receive all their own earnings, minus a percentage deducted for the maintenance of the institute; at others they are paid a fixed salary, as a rule from £25 to £30 a year, plus a varying percentage on their earnings or a periodical bonus according to length of service.
This may be taken to indicate the possible earnings of trained nurses working independently, as they usually do in America.
The condition of the Indians on the plantations is often akin to slavery, owing to the system adopted by some planters of making payments in advance; for the Indians soon spend their earnings, and thus contract debts which can only be repaid by long service.
Under the civil code of 1897 the earnings of a wife are her separate property, and it is provided that "no woman, nor any boy under age of twelve years, shall be employed to work or labour in or about any mine in this state."
Belawan is connected with Medan by a railway, constructed before 1890 by a private company, almost entirely dependent for its earnings upon the numerous tobacco plantations, several of which belong to British corporations.
The workmen contribute at the rate of two-thirds and the employers at the rate of one-third; the sum payable in respect of each worker varying from 11/2-3% of the earnings in the communal sick fund to at most 11/2-4% in the others.
So far as their earnings do not exceed 150 perannum, thefollowin~ classes are under the legal obligation to insure: laborers in mines quarries,dockyards,wharves, manufactories and breweries; bricklayers and navvies; post-office, railway, and naval and military servants and officials; carters, raftsmen and canal hands; cellarmen, warehousemen; stevedores; and agricultural laborers.
The funds for covering the compensation payable in respect of accidents are raised by payments based, in agriculture, on the taxable capital, and in other trades and industries on the earnings of the insured.
In case of injury, involving incapacity for more than, thirteen weeks (for the earlier period the Krankenkassen provide), the weekly sum payable during complete or permanent incapacity is fixed at the ratio of two-thirds of the earnings during the year preceding the accident, and in case of partial disablement, at such a proportion of the earnings as corresponds to the loss through disablement.
To defray the expenses of interment; (2) a monthly allowance of one-fifth of the annual earnings as above to the widow and each child up to the age of 15.
Against this, however, a strong prejudice exists, and in Ontario the only direct taxation takes the form of taxes on corporations (insurance, loan and railway companies), succession duties, liquor licences, &c. These, together with returns from various investments, earnings of provincial buildings, &c., yield about one-third of the revenue.
In the five years 1902-1906 the capital value of the state railways increased from E.2o,383,000 to E.23,200,000 and the net earnings from E.I,o59,000 to E.I,475,000.
Figures are not available for any exact comparison of outlay and return in other countries, but the earnings in European countries generally run to about half the expenditure.
Certain it is that though the unprejudiced must admit that exclusion has not been at all an unmixed blessing, yet the consensus of opinion is that a large population, non-citizen and non-assimilable, sending - it is said - most of their earnings to China, living in the main meanly at best, and practically without wives, children or homes, is socially and economically a menace outweighing the undoubted convenience of cheaper (and frequently more trustworthy) menial labour than the other population affords.
So far as may be the total earnings are not to be more than are sufficient to meet necessary outlays.
Traffic over Lines Earnings in N r~ fit f th between adon ih~san~sof Government Dept.
Among other sources of revenue are an inheritance tax, which yields approximately $1,000,000 a year, and 7% of the annual gross earnings of the Illinois Central railway, given in return for the state aid in the construction of the road.
Carlyle began to be known as leader of a new " mystic " school, and his earnings enabled him to send his brother John to study in Germany.
He carried his method into every detail of life, and lived on his earnings with extreme frugality.
The insured are arranged in five classes, according to the amount of their yearly earnings: viz.
The use of tramways for the transportation of passengers in cities dates from 1868, when the first section of the Botanical Garden line of Rio de Janeiro was opened to traffic. The line was completed with its surplus earnings and continued under the control of the American company which built it until 1882, when it was sold to a Brazilian company.