Of this $11,271,708 was the value of collars and cuffs (89.5% of the value of the total American product), an industry which gave employment to 49.3% of the wage-earners in Troy, and paid 42.1% of the wages.
Much of the improvement in the lot of the wage-earners has been due to the Labour organizations, yet so late as 1881 these organizations were of so little account, politically, that when the law relating to trades unions was passed in New South Wales, the English law was followed, and it was simply enacted that the purposes of any trades union shall not be deemed unlawful (so as to render a member liable to criminal prosecution for conspirac y or otherwise) merely by reason that they are in restraint of trade.
In Sardinia wage-earners are paid lod.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all wage-earners engaged in manufacturing.
We shall best illustrate the character and method of economic reasoning by examples, and for that purpose let us take first of An all a purely historical problem, namely, the effect on of the wage-earners of the wages clauses of the Statute of Apprenticeship (1563).
(io) For more than one hundred years before the repeal of the act, trade unions and other forms of voluntary association amongst wage-earners, combinations amongst employers, collective agreements, customary regulations, were established in many of the important trades of the country.
The adoption of machinery gradually revolutionized the methods of production; but in the first instance only certain industries were affected, and those not at the same time or in the same degree; old laws grown obsolete were repealed, but other laws affecting wage-earners and employers took their place, more complicated and elaborate than the Elizabethan code.
In 1907 48.5% of all wage-earners were engaged in agriculture, fishing and mining, 16.3 in manufactures, and 17.7 in trade and transportation.
Its railway car repair and construction shops, belonging to the Norfolk & Western railway, employed in that year 66.9% of the total number of factory wage-earners; pig-iron, structural iron, canned goods, bottles, tobacco, planing-mill products and cotton are among the manufactures.
Boots and shoes are the principal products; in 1905 seven-tenths of the city's wage-earners were engaged in their manufacture, and Auburn's output ($4,263,162 = 66.5% of the total factory product of the city) was one-third of that of the whole state.
2% of the wage-earners were engaged in mining.
In 1905 the wage-earners engaged in manufacturing (under the factory system) numbered 18,475, and the total capital invested in manufacturing was $50,925,630; the gross value of products was $41,160,276; the net value (deducting the value of material purchased in partly manufactured form) was $16,276,470.
The values of other products in 1905 were as follows: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $15,620,931; lumber and timber products (which employed the largest average number of wage-earners-13,332, or 27.2 per cent.), $16,278,240; cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $10,472,742; printing and publishing, $7,782,247; foundry and machine shop products, 1905, $4,952,827; malt liquors, $4,153,938; saddlery and harness, 1905, $3,251,525.
The textile industries (the making of carpets and rugs, cotton goods, cotton smallwares, dyeing and finishing textiles, felt goods, felt hats, hosiery and knit goods, shoddy, silk and silk goods, woollen goods, and worsted goods), employed 32.5% of all manufacturing wage earners in 1905, and their product ($271,369,816) was 24.1% of the total, and of this nearly one-half ($129,171,449) was in cotton goods, being 28.9% of the total output of the country, as compared with I I% for South Carolina, the nearest competitor of Massachusetts.
Between 1850 and 1900, while the population increased 103.8%, the average number of wage-earners employed in manufacturing establishments increased 258.5%, constituting 5.2% of the total population in 1850 and 9.1% in 1900.
The percentage of all wage-earners engaged in these groups in 1900 was 357~ 4.3, 19.2, 164, and 24-4 respectively.
The percentage of such wage-earners is therefore increasing much more rapidly in the former region.
The same sex constituted only 37-5% (34.6 0/c, in 1880) of the wage-earners of the third group; the South also showing here, as is natural in view of its colored class, much the highest and the Wescern division of states much the lowest percentage.
Thus of 512,254 establishments included in the reports of 1900, six-tenths, employing II ~2% of the total number of wage-earners and producing 123% of the total value of all manufactures, must be omitted as neighborhood establishments in order to make the following comparison of the results of the two enumerations of 1900 and 1905.
The extent to which manufactures are controlled by large factories is shown by the fact that although in 1905 only II~2% of the total number reported products valued at $100,000 or over, these establishments controlled 81.5% of the capital, employed 7 ~6% of the wage earners, and produced 793% of the value of the products, of all establishments reported.
523% of the total number, employing 66.3% of all wage-earners, and producing 69.7% of the total product-value, were in urban centres.
Both in 1905 and in 1900 the group of industries classed as of food and kindred products ranked first in the cost of materials used and the value of products; the group of iron and steel ranking first in capital and in wages paid; and textiles in the number of wage-earners employed.
The average number of wage-earners, and the iron and steel output was much less.
Next to Trenton, New Jersey, East Liverpool is the most important place in the United States for the manufacture of earthenware and pottery, 4859 out of its 5228 wage-earners, or 92.9%, being employed in this industry in 1 9 05, when $5,373,852 (83.5% of the value of all its factory products) was the value of the earthenware and pottery.
In factory output ($46,879,212 in 1905; $41,202,984 in 1900) Lowell ranked fifth in value in 1905 and fourth in 1900 among the cities of Massachusetts; more than three-tenths of the total population are factory wage-earners, and nearly 19% of the population are in the cotton mills.
The number of all establishments increased from 5710 in 1880 to 8248 in 190o; the capital invested from $26,968,990 to $103,670,988, the average number of wage-earners from 40,184 to 72,702, the total wages from $7,425,261 to $22,445,720, and the value of products from $51,770, 992 to $132,172,910.
The number of factories' increased from 3186 in 1900 to 3187 in 1905, the capital invested from $92,299,589 to $ 1 47,9 8 9, 182, the average number of wage-earners from 66,223 to 80,285, the total wages from $20,269,026 to $ 2 7,943, 0 5 8, and the value of products from $108,644,150 to $148,856,525.
In 1850 7.7% of the population were employed as wage-earners in manufacturing establishments; in 1900, 12.8%.
The relative importance of mining and manufacturing may be shown thus: in 1902 the mines and quarries of the state employed 5712 wage-earners and paid to them $5,089,122, and in 1910 manufacturing industries employed 6615 wage-earners, who received $3,388,370 in wages.
But, with the growth of the mineral industry and of the cultivation of sugar beets, there was a remarkable growth in manufacturing between 1900 and 1905: the amount of capital increased from $13,219,039 to $26,004,011, or 96.7%; the average number of wage-earners from 54 1 3 to 8052, or 48.8; and the value of factory products from $17,981,648 to $38,926,464, or 116.5%.
Eighteen industries in 1905 employed nearly three-fifths of the wage-earners in factories and were represented by nearly two-thirds ($293,882,705) of the total product.