The Dzungarian Ala-tau Mountains, which separate it from Kulja, extend south-west towards the river Ili, with an average height of 6000 ft.
He crossed, and named, the Dzungarian extension of the Gobi desert, and then traversed the Gobi itself from Hami to Sachu, which became a point of junction between his journeys and those of Krishna.
Geographically, Mongolia may thus be said to occupy both terraces of the great plateau of east Asia, which stretches in the south of Siberia, between the Sailughem range of the Great Altai and the Great Khingan - with the exception of the Dzungarian depression.
But while its southern foot stands in the Dzungarian trench, i.e.
Thus the Ektagh Altai is a true border-rangethat is, a lofty and steep escarpment facing the Dzungarian depression, with a gentle and relatively short slope towards the plateau.
And it is indeed the fact that large portions of the vast region comprised between the lower Volga, the AralIrtysh water-divide, the Dzungarian Ala-tau, and the outliers of the Tian-shan and Hindu-kush systems are actually covered with Aralo-Caspian deposits, nearly always a yellowish-grey clay, though occasionally they assume the character of a more or less compact sandstone of the same colour.
Of and parallel to the same lake; and (4) the Dzungarian Ala-tau, lying N.
The Dzungarian Ala-tau reach a maximum altitude of r 1,000 ft.
It extends from the river Irtysh and the Dzungarian depression (46°-47° N.) northwards to the Siberian railway and to the Sayan mountains.
The Ek-tagh or Mongolian Altai, which separates the Kobdo basin on the north from the Irtysh basin on the south, is a true border-range, in that it rises in a steep and lofty escarpment from the Dzungarian depression (1550 to 3000 ft.), but descends on the north by a relatively short slope to the plateau (4000-5500 ft.) of north-western Mongolia.
From Hami other routes proceed to Barkul and to the main caravan road which skirts the southern edge of the Dzungarian valley and leads to Vyernyi in the Russian province of Semiryechensk.
In the course of the Dzungarian outbreak of 1864 the Chinese were again expelled; and Yakub Beg became master of Kashgar in 1872.
Excluding these mountains, the northernmost member of the Tian-shan system is the Dzungarian Ala-tau in 45°- 45° 3 o ' N.
On its northern side the valley of Borotala is skirted by the important orographic system of the Dzungarian Ala-tau, the northernmost member of the Tian-shan.
In the Sary-jas, the Terskei Ala-tau, Khan-tengri, Alai, Trans-Alai, Terek range, Trans-Ili Ala-tau, Kunghei Ala-tau, Kokshal-tau, Dzungarian Ala-tau, Alexander Mountains and Talas-tau.
For instance, in the Dzungarian Ala-tau, the valleys going south lie successively at altitudes of 4300 ft.
After traversing the desert of Gobi from Sa-chou to Hami, the great northern route crossed over into the Dzungarian valley either by the Otun-koza depression or by the gap at Urumchi, or else it proceeded over the Muz-art pass on the east side of Khan-tengri or over the Bedel pass in the Kokshal-tau and so down into the valley of Kulja.