20 a N., by China (Dzungaria, Kulja, Aksu and Kashgaria) on the E.
They are Lamaists by religion and immigrated to the mouth of the Volga from Dzungaria, in the 17th century, driving out the Tatars and Nogais, and after many wars with the Don Cossacks, one part of them was taken in by the Don Cossacks, so that even now there are among these Cossacks several Kalmuck sotnias or squadrons.
Last is the Altai, near the 50th parallel, rising to 10,000 or 12,000 ft., which separates the waters of the great rivers of western Siberia from those that collect into the lakes of northwest Mongolia, Dzungaria and Kalka.
The Kalmucks are a Buddhist and Mongolian people who originated in a confederacy of tribes dwelling in Dzungaria, migrated to Siberia, and settled on the Lower Volga.
Thence it turns north-west, following the Great Wall for over 300 m.; it then crosses the plateau so as to separate Mongolia from the Chinese province of Sin-Kiang (Hari-su-sin-tsiang, which includes the Nan-shan highlands and eastern Turkestan), and from Dzungaria, reaching the Chinese or Ektagh Altai in 46° 30' N., 92° 50' E.
This massive swelling is cut into, between the Ektagh Altai and the eastern T`ien-shan, by the relative depression of Tarbagatai and Dzungaria, 1500 to 3000 ft.
In1758-1759the Chinese conquered Dzungaria and East Turkestan, and the begs or rulers of Ferghana recognized Chinese suzerainty.
Several petty wars were undertaken by the Russians after 1847 to destroy the Khokand forts, and to secure possession, first, of the Ili (and so of Dzungaria), and next of the Syr-darya region, the result being that in 1866, after the occupation of Ura-tyube and Jizakh, the khanate of Khokand was separated from Bokhara.
The dynasty of the Jagatai Khans collapsed in 1572 by the dismemberment of the country between rival representatives; and soon after two powerful Khoja factions, the White and Black Mountaineers (Ak and Kara Taghluk), arose, whose dissensions and warfares, with the intervention of the Kalmucks of Dzungaria, fill up the history till 1759, when a Chinese army from Ili (Kulja) invaded the country, and, after perpetrating wholesale massacres, finally consolidated their authority by settling therein Chinese emigrants, together with a Manchu garrison.
The great Tungani (Dungani) revolt, or insurrection of the Chinese Mahommedans, which broke out in 1862 in Kansuh, spread rapidly to Dzungaria and through the line of towns in the Tarim basin.
Dzungaria, Kulja, Issyk-kul, Ferghana) for a considerable distance towards the east, greatly facilitate access to the loftier plateau lands of Central Asia, and have from time immemorial been the highways of human intercourse between East and West.
Their pacific temper exposed them to the raids of the Kirghiz, who compelled them first to settle in Dzungaria, then to move their dwellings several times, and ultimately (in 1742) to recognize the sovereignty of Russia.
The country belongs to China, and to the Chinese is known as Sin-kiang; but administratively the Chinese province of Sin-kiang crosses over the Tian-shan and includes the valleys of Kulja or Ili and Dzungaria on the north.
There are also two other depressions which lie at a lower altitude than the Kara-koshun, but they lie, one (Kulja or Ili) among the Tianshan ranges and the other (Dzungaria) beyond them.
In Dzungaria they are Dzungans or Dungans, a Turko-Tatar tribe who nominally profess Mahommedanism, and in Kulja they are Kirghiz, Tatars, Mongols, Dungans and others.
The total population, excluding Kulja and Dzungaria, is estimated by A.
The population of Dzungaria is estimated at 600,000 and of Kulja at 150,000.
His son reigned at Samarkand, but was overthrown by Timur (Tamerlane), the Mongol sovereign of Samarkand, who, to put an end to the attacks of the wild Tianshan tribes, undertook in 1389 his renowned march to Dzungaria, which was devastated, East Turkestan also suffering severely.
In the 17th century a powerful Kalmuck confederation arose in Dzungaria, and extended its sway over the Ili and Issyk-kul basins, having its capital on the Ili.
The Chinese entered Dzungaria in 1758, and there perpetrated an appalling massacre, the victims being estimated at one million.
The Kalmucks fled, and Dzungaria became a Chinese province, with a military colonization of Sibos, Solons, Dahurs, Chinese criminals and Moslem Dzungars.
2390 ft.) the principal constituent ranges are the Bogdo-ola, continued west and north-west in the Iren-khabirga, the Talki Mountains and the Boro-khoro, flanking in succession the great depression of Dzungaria on the south.
At the west end of the Barkul range is the gap of Otunkoza (2390 ft.), by which the Hami-Barkul caravan road crosses into the valley of Dzungaria, and at Urumchi (87°30' E.), over 200 m.
At the foot of the same slopes lies the broad, deep valley of Dzungaria (2500-1000 ft.).