Of Durban, 110 m.
The southern entrance to Durban harbour is marked by a bold bluff, the Bluff of Natal, which is 250 ft.
'North of Durban the coast belt, hitherto very narrow, widens out and becomes more flat.
Although the division of the country into terraces separated by ranges of hills is clearly marked in various districts, as for instance between Durban and Colenso, the province is traversed by many secondary chains, as well as by spurs of the Drakensberg.
Other rivers of Natal which rise in the spurs of the Drakensberg or in the higher terraces are the Umvoti, which runs south of the Tugela and gives its name to a county division, the Umlaas (which gives Durban its main water supply, the Illovo, which traverse .the country between Lthe Umgeni and Umkomaas, and the Umtamvuna, noteworthy as forming the boundary between Natal and Pondoland.
The mean temperature at Durban, records taken at 260 ft.
At Durban the annual rainfall is about 40 in., at Pietermaritzburg 38.
In this region (which includes Durban) the Asiatic population was 61,854.
Of Durban (q.v.), the seaport and only large city in Natal, pop. 67,842.
Along the coast north of Durban, serves as centre for sugar, tobacco and fruit plantations.
Durban (Port Natal) is in regular communication with Europe via Cape Town and via Suez by several lines of steamers, the chief being the boats of the Union-Castle line, which sail from Southampton and follow the west coast route, those of the German East Africa line, which sail from Hamburg and go via the east coast route and those of the Austrian Lloyd from Trieste, also by the east coast route.
There are also two direct lines of steamers between London and Durban (a distance of 6993 nautical miles), average passage about twenty-six days; the mail route taking twenty to twenty-two days.
Durban is also in regular and frequent communication by passenger steamers with the other South African ports, as well as Mauritius, Zanzibar, &c., and with India, Australia, the United States and South America.
The main line starts from Durban, and passing through Pietermaritzburg (71 m.), Ladysmith (190 m.) and Newcastle (268 m.) pierces the Drakensberg at Laing's Nek by a tunnel 2213 ft.
Thence the railway is continued to Johannesburg, &c. The distances from Durban to the places mentioned by this route are: Johannesburg, 483 m.; Pretoria 511 m.; Kimberley, 793 m.; Bulawayo, 1508 m.; Delagoa Bay, 860 m.
From Durban) on the main Cape Town, Bloemfontein and Johannesburg railway and is the shortest route between Durban and Cape Town (1271 m.).
It also affords via Bloemfontein the shortest route (622 m.) between Durban and Kimberley.
Durban is the starting-point of two coast lines.
From Durban), runs N.W.
From Durban and continued through Zululand to Somkele, the centre of the Santa Lucia coal-fields.
Distant from Durban; after falling 1000 ft.
From Durban it has reached an altitude of 5152 ft., but on reaching Ladysmith, 191 m.
From Durban, the altitude has decreased to 3284 ft.
A submarine cable from Durban goes to Zanzibar and Aden, whence there is communication with every quarter of the globe.
There is a considerable trade in bunker and export coal at Durban, the coal bunkered having increased from 118,740 tons in 1900 to 710,777 in 1908.
The chief towns - Durban; Maritzburg, Ladysmith, Newcastle and Dundee - are governed by municipal corporations and minor towns by local boards.
Durban harbour is defended by batteries with heavy modern guns.
The judges also hold circuit courts at Durban and other places.
There are government secondary and art schools at Durban and Maritzburg, and a Technical Institute at Durban.
The Natal Advertizer is a Durban evening paper.
Vasco da Gama on his voyage to India sighted the bluff at the entrance to the bay now forming the harbour of Durban on Christmas Day 1497 and named the country Terra Natalis.
Retief, like his English predecessors at Port Natal (known also since 1835 as Durban), sought a formal grant of territory from the chief of the Zulu nation, the Zulus being the acknowledged overlords of the tribes living in Natal.
Delegates representative of all parties were appointed, and the national convention to consider the question of union met at Durban in October 1908.
After sitting at Durban for a month, the convention adjourned to Cape Town and concluded its elaboration of a draft constitution by February 1909.
The chief cities are Cape Town (pop. 1904, 77, 66 8), Port Elizabeth (32,959), East London (25,220) and Kimberley (34331) in the Cape province; Durban (67,847) in Natal; Johannesburg (155,642) and Pretoria (36,839) in the Transvaal; and Bloemfontein (33,883) in the Orange Free State.
From the seaports of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban, Lourenco Marques and Beira railway lines run to Kimberley, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg and Pretoria, while a trunk line extends north from Kimberley through Rhodesia (in which gold mining began on an extensive scale in 1898) and across the Zambezi below the Victoria Falls into the Congo basin, where it serves the Katanga mineral area.
The harbours of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban are state owned, as are also nearly all the railways in the Union.
Railway connexion with Durban was made in 1880, and in 1895 the line was extended to Johannesburg.
Largely owing to its situation - being on the direct route between the Cape ports and the Transvaal, and between Durban and Kimberley - the province possesses an extensive network of railways.
From Durban), the other S.W.
In the tropical and subtropical belts of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans south of the equator the salinity diminishes rapidly from the surface downwards, and at 500 fathoms reaches a minimum of 34.3 or 34.4 p e r mille; after that it increases again to 800 fathoms, where it is almost 34.7 or 34.8, and this salinity holds good to the bottom, even to the greatest depths, as was first shown by the " Gauss " and afterwards by the " Planet " between Durban and Ceylon.
The distances by rail from Johannesburg to the following seaports are: Lourengo Marques, 364 m.; Durban, 483 m.; East London, 6S9 m.; Port Elizabeth, 714 m.; Cape Town, 957 m.