Of Durban, 110 m.
The southern entrance to Durban harbour is marked by a bold bluff, the Bluff of Natal, which is 250 ft.
Although the division of the country into terraces separated by ranges of hills is clearly marked in various districts, as for instance between Durban and Colenso, the province is traversed by many secondary chains, as well as by spurs of the Drakensberg.
Other rivers of Natal which rise in the spurs of the Drakensberg or in the higher terraces are the Umvoti, which runs south of the Tugela and gives its name to a county division, the Umlaas (which gives Durban its main water supply, the Illovo, which traverse .the country between Lthe Umgeni and Umkomaas, and the Umtamvuna, noteworthy as forming the boundary between Natal and Pondoland.
The mean temperature at Durban, records taken at 260 ft.
At Durban the annual rainfall is about 40 in., at Pietermaritzburg 38.
In this region (which includes Durban) the Asiatic population was 61,854.
Of Durban (q.v.), the seaport and only large city in Natal, pop. 67,842.
Along the coast north of Durban, serves as centre for sugar, tobacco and fruit plantations.
Durban (Port Natal) is in regular communication with Europe via Cape Town and via Suez by several lines of steamers, the chief being the boats of the Union-Castle line, which sail from Southampton and follow the west coast route, those of the German East Africa line, which sail from Hamburg and go via the east coast route and those of the Austrian Lloyd from Trieste, also by the east coast route.
There are also two direct lines of steamers between London and Durban (a distance of 6993 nautical miles), average passage about twenty-six days; the mail route taking twenty to twenty-two days.
Durban is also in regular and frequent communication by passenger steamers with the other South African ports, as well as Mauritius, Zanzibar, &c., and with India, Australia, the United States and South America.
The main line starts from Durban, and passing through Pietermaritzburg (71 m.), Ladysmith (190 m.) and Newcastle (268 m.) pierces the Drakensberg at Laing's Nek by a tunnel 2213 ft.
Thence the railway is continued to Johannesburg, &c. The distances from Durban to the places mentioned by this route are: Johannesburg, 483 m.; Pretoria 511 m.; Kimberley, 793 m.; Bulawayo, 1508 m.; Delagoa Bay, 860 m.
From Durban) on the main Cape Town, Bloemfontein and Johannesburg railway and is the shortest route between Durban and Cape Town (1271 m.).
It also affords via Bloemfontein the shortest route (622 m.) between Durban and Kimberley.
Durban is the starting-point of two coast lines.
From Durban), runs N.W.
From Durban and continued through Zululand to Somkele, the centre of the Santa Lucia coal-fields.
Distant from Durban; after falling 1000 ft.
From Durban it has reached an altitude of 5152 ft., but on reaching Ladysmith, 191 m.
From Durban, the altitude has decreased to 3284 ft.
A submarine cable from Durban goes to Zanzibar and Aden, whence there is communication with every quarter of the globe.
There is a considerable trade in bunker and export coal at Durban, the coal bunkered having increased from 118,740 tons in 1900 to 710,777 in 1908.
The chief towns - Durban; Maritzburg, Ladysmith, Newcastle and Dundee - are governed by municipal corporations and minor towns by local boards.
Durban harbour is defended by batteries with heavy modern guns.
The judges also hold circuit courts at Durban and other places.
There are government secondary and art schools at Durban and Maritzburg, and a Technical Institute at Durban.
The Natal Advertizer is a Durban evening paper.
Vasco da Gama on his voyage to India sighted the bluff at the entrance to the bay now forming the harbour of Durban on Christmas Day 1497 and named the country Terra Natalis.
The next step was taken by the settlers at the port, who in 1835 resolved to lay out a town, which they named Durban, after Sir Benjamin d'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony.
Pursued by the Zulus, all the surviving inhabitants of Durban were compelled for a time to take refuge on a ship then in harbour.
C. Smith with a force of 263 men left his camp at the Umgazi,on the eastern frontier of Cape Colony, and marching overland reached Durban without opposition, and encamped, on the 4th of May, at the base of the Berea hills.
Meantime, an old Durban resident, Richard (commonly called Dick) King, had undertaken to convey tidings of the perilous position of the British force to the commandant at Graham's Town.
Commandant Jan Mocke of Winburg (who had helped to besiege Captain Smith at Durban) and others of the " war party " attempted to induce the volksraad not to submit, and a plan was formed to murder Pretorius, Boshof and other leaders, who were now convinced that the only chance of ending the state of complete anarchy into which the country had fallen was by accepting British sovereignty.
There already existed a short line from the Point at Durban to the Umgeni, and on the 1st of January 1876 Sir Henry Bulwer, who had succeeded Wolseley as governor, turned the first sod of a new state-owned railway which was completed as far as Maritzburg in 1880.
Durban was soon thronged; and Pietermaritzburg, which was then practically the terminus of the Natal railway, was the base from which nearly all the expeditions to the goldfields were fitted out.
The demand which the growing trade made upon the one port of Natal, Durban, encouraged the colonists to redouble their efforts to improve their harbour.
To deepen the channel over the bar at Durban so that steamers might enter the harbour was the cause of labour and expenditure for many years.
Refugee and Uitlander committees were formed both at Durban and Maritzburg, and, in conjunction with the colonists, they did all in their power to assist in recruiting irregular corps, and also in furnishing relief to the sick and needy.
The movement for union rapidly gained strength, and a National Convention to consider the matter met in Durban in October 1908.
Meantime, in September 1892, the Cape railway system had been extended to Johannesburg and in December 1895 the through line between Durban and Pretoria was completed.
Half the imports reach the Transvaal through the Portuguese port of Lourengo Marques, Durban taking 25% and the Cape ports the remainder.
In Johannes 1 Jameson, speaking at Durban on the 9th of August 1910, declared that the raid was not racial in the sense usually understood, but an effort towards federation.
It is not too much to suppose that the executive in Pretoria had calculated that the occupation of Durban would inspire the entire Dutch nation with a spirit of unanimity which would eventually wrest South Africa' from the British.
Mr Thornycroft's other memorials, such as the " Queen Victoria Memorial " (Karachi), the " War Memorial " (at Durban) and the " Armstrong Memorial " (at Newcastle), are well known, and his portrait statuary and medallions are numerous.
As revenue flowed in from the gold-mines on the Rand many fine buildings were erected in the capital, which was placed in railway communication with Cape Town in 1893 and with Lourenco Marques and Durban in 1895.
Of Durban, lies 15 m.
A railway, completed in 1904, which begins at Durban and crosses into Zululand by a bridge over the Tugela near the Lower Drift, runs along the coast belt over nearly level country to the St Lucia coal-fields in Hlabisa magistracy-167 m.
Frbm Durban, of which 98 are in Zululand.
The first troops arrived at Durban on the 17th of March.
Meantime the coal mines near St Lucia Bay were opened up and connected with Durban by railway.
In Durban the Present Century was started in 1903, and the Natal Magazine was issued at Pietermaritzburg in 1877.
The distances by rail from Johannesburg to the following seaports are: Lourengo Marques, 364 m.; Durban, 483 m.; East London, 6S9 m.; Port Elizabeth, 714 m.; Cape Town, 957 m.
In the tropical and subtropical belts of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans south of the equator the salinity diminishes rapidly from the surface downwards, and at 500 fathoms reaches a minimum of 34.3 or 34.4 p e r mille; after that it increases again to 800 fathoms, where it is almost 34.7 or 34.8, and this salinity holds good to the bottom, even to the greatest depths, as was first shown by the " Gauss " and afterwards by the " Planet " between Durban and Ceylon.
Largely owing to its situation - being on the direct route between the Cape ports and the Transvaal, and between Durban and Kimberley - the province possesses an extensive network of railways.
From Durban), the other S.W.
Railway connexion with Durban was made in 1880, and in 1895 the line was extended to Johannesburg.
The chief cities are Cape Town (pop. 1904, 77, 66 8), Port Elizabeth (32,959), East London (25,220) and Kimberley (34331) in the Cape province; Durban (67,847) in Natal; Johannesburg (155,642) and Pretoria (36,839) in the Transvaal; and Bloemfontein (33,883) in the Orange Free State.
From the seaports of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban, Lourenco Marques and Beira railway lines run to Kimberley, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg and Pretoria, while a trunk line extends north from Kimberley through Rhodesia (in which gold mining began on an extensive scale in 1898) and across the Zambezi below the Victoria Falls into the Congo basin, where it serves the Katanga mineral area.
The harbours of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban are state owned, as are also nearly all the railways in the Union.
Retief, like his English predecessors at Port Natal (known also since 1835 as Durban), sought a formal grant of territory from the chief of the Zulu nation, the Zulus being the acknowledged overlords of the tribes living in Natal.
Delegates representative of all parties were appointed, and the national convention to consider the question of union met at Durban in October 1908.
After sitting at Durban for a month, the convention adjourned to Cape Town and concluded its elaboration of a draft constitution by February 1909.