The critics of Aquinas - Duns Scotus and the later Nominalists - show some tendency towards rational scepticism.
More importance attaches to Duns Scotus, who brings prominently forward the idea of a progressive development in nature by means of a process of determination.
This serves Duns Scotus as the most universal basis of existence, all angels having material bodies.
One might almost say that Duns Scotus recognizes the principle of a gradual physical evolution, only that he chooses to represent the mechanism by which the process is brought about by means of quaint scholastic fictions.
Thomas' great rival, Duns Scotus, does this to a large extent, at times affirming " two truths."
JOHN DUNS SCOTUS (1265 or 1275-1308), one of the foremost of the schoolmen.
His birthplace has been variously given as Duns in Berwickshire, Dunum (Down) in Ulster, and Dunstane in Northumberland, but there is not sufficient evidence to settle the question.
When his master, William Varron, removed to Paris in 1301, Duns Scotus was appointed to succeed him as professor of philosophy, and his lectures attracted an immense number of students.
Further, while the genius of Aquinas was constructive, that of Duns Scotus was destructive; Aquinas was a philosopher, Duns a critic. The latter has been said to stand to the former in the relation of Kant to Leibnitz.
In the matter of Universals, Duns was more of a realist and less of an eclectic than Aquinas.
The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception was the great subject in dispute between the two parties; it was strenuously opposed by Aquinas, and supported by Duns Scotus, although not without reserve.
In opposition to Aquinas, who maintained that reason and revelation were two independent sources of knowledge, Duns Scotus held that there was no true knowledge of anything knowable apart from theology as based upon revelation.
Another chief point of difference with Aquinas was in regard to the freedom of the will, which Duns Scotus maintained absolutely.
Aquinas.) Duns Scotus strongly upheld the authority of the church, making it the ultimate authority on which that of Scripture depends.
Muller, Biographisches fiber Duns Scotus (progr., Cologne, 1881); W.
Seeberg, Die Theologie des Duns Scotus (1900), and in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie fiir protestantische Theologie (1898), with bibliog.
Pluzanski, Essai sur la philosophie de Duns Scot (1887); A.
Schneid, Die Korperlehre des Duns Scotus - its relation to Thomism and Atomism (1879); P. Minges, "Ist Duns Scotus Indeterminist?"
Kahl, Die Lehre vom Primat des Willens bei Augustinus, Duns Scotus, and Descartes (1886).
On the question of universals he endeavoured to steer a middle course between the pantheistically inclined realism of Duns Scotus and the extreme nominalism of William of Occam.
In this second period the names of Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus represent (in the 13th century and the first years of the 14th century) the culmination of Scholastic thought and its consolidation into system.
Indeed, no sooner was the harmony apparently established by Aquinas than Duns Scotus began this negative criticism, which is carried much farther by William of Occam.
It is the question of the particularity or " this-ness " (haecceitas, as Duns Scotus afterwards named it) that embarrasses the Scholastics.
This difficulty was presently raised by Duns Scotus and the realistically-inclined opponents of the Thomist doctrine.
C. 1300), who anticipated many of the objections urged soon after him by Duns Scotus (q.v.).
The chief characteristic of this criticism is well expressed in the name bestowed on Duns by his contemporaries - Doctor subtilis.
In general it may be said that Duns shows less confidence in the power of reason than Aquinas, and to that extent Erdmann and others are right in looking upon his system as the beginning of the decline of Scholasticism.
While agreeing with Albert and Thomas in maintaining the threefold existence of the universals, Duns Scotus attacked the Thomist doctrine of individuation.
In his treatment of the conception of matter, Duns shows that he inclined much more to the Realism which makes for pantheism than was the case with the Aristotelianism of Thomas.
Among the disciples of Duns Scotus are mentioned John of Bassolis, Francis of Mayrone, Antonius Andreae (d.
DUNS, a police burgh and county town of Berwickshire, Scotland.
It was on Duns Law (700 ft.) that the Covenanters, under Alexander Leslie, were encamped in 1639, and the Covenanters' Stone on the top of the hill has been enclosed to preserve it from relic-hunters.
Duns castle, adjoining the town on the W., includes the Tower erected by Thomas Randolph, earl of Moray (d.
When we turn to Duns Scotus, we still find realism, still predestinarianism.
Seeberg to interpret Duns Scotus as the forerunner of Luther in his emphasis on the prac tical.
Expert knowledge and judicial insight must decide the point; but, so far as the present writer can judge, it is illusory to imagine that Duns points us beyond the medieval assumptions.
As generally understood, Duns makes caprice supreme in God.
Though he may technically be classed as an " extreme realist, " Duns is the forerunner of those later Nominalists, like William of Occam, who unsettled every intellectual ground of belief in order that they might resettle belief upon Church authority, not reason but rather scepticism being for them the ancilla domini.
Rejected by Thomas, it is patronized by Duns - not, one thinks, that he loved tion.
It is most noteworthy that they were joined by thinkers such as Grosseteste, Adam Marsh, Roger Bacon, Duns Scotus and William of Ockham.
It is traceable as far back as the schoolmen of whom Duns Scotus describes as "transcendental" those conceptions which have a higher degree of universality than the Aristotelian categories.