North of that river the coast is low-lying and bordered by sand-lunes, to which succeed on the Strait of Dover the cliffs in the neighborhood of the port of Boulogne and the marshes and sand-dunes of Flanders, with the ports of Calais and Dunkirk, the latter the principal French port on the NOrth Sea.
Flax, Hemp, Jute, &c.The preparation and spinning of these materials and the manufacture of nets and rope, together with the weaving of linen and other fabrics, give occupation to 112,000 persons chiefly in the departments of Nord (Lille, Armentires, Dunkirk), Somme (Amiens) and Maine-et-Loire (Angers, Cholet).
Dunkirk, Gravelines, Boulogne and Paimpol send considerable fleets to the Icelandic cod-fisheries, and St Malo, Fcainp, Granville and Cancale to those of Newfoundland.
The chief towns of these districts are Algiers,, Bayonne, Besancon, Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Chambry, Charleville, Dunkirk, ~pinal, La Rochelle, Le Havre, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpllier, Nancy, Nantes, Nice, Paris, Perpignan,Rouen, St-Malo,Valenciennes.
Of the coast defences the principal are Toulon, Antibes, Rochefort, Lorient, Brest, Olron, La Rochelle, BelleIsle, Cherbourg,St-Malo, Havre, Calais, Gravelines and Dunkirk A number of the older fortresses, dating for the most part from Louis XIV.s time, are still in existence, but are no longer of military importance.
Cromwell furnished 6000 men with a fleet to join in the attack upon Spain in Flanders, and obtained as reward Mardyke and Dunkirk, the former being captured and handed over on the 3rd of October 1657, and the latter after the battle of the Dunes on the 4th of June 1658, when Cromwell's Ironsides were once more pitted against English royalists fighting for the Spaniards.
The victory at Dunkirk increased his reputation, while Louis XIV.
In 1755 he went with Boscawen to North America as captain of the "Dunkirk" (60),(60), and his seizure of the French "Alcide" (64) was the first shot fired in the war.
Dunkirk is situated in the low but fertile district of the Wateringues.
The streets of Dunkirk are wide and well paved, the chief of them converging to the square named after Jean Bart (born at Dunkirk in 1651), whose statue by David d'Angers stands at its centre.
Dunkirk is the seat of a sub-prefect; its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a branch of the Bank of France and a communal college; and it has a school of drawing, architecture and music, a library and a rich museum of paintings.
Dunkirk forms with Bergues, Bourbourg and Gravelines a group of fortresses enclosed by inundations and canals.
Dunkirk annually despatches a fleet to the Icelandic codfisheries, and takes part in the herring and other fisheries.
Dunkirk is said to have originated in a chapel founded by St Eloi in the 7th century, round which a small village speedily sprang up. In the 10th century it was fortified by Baldwin III., count of Flanders; together with that province it passed successively to Burgundy, Austria and Spain.
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In January 1667 he was one of three appointed to manage the evidence at the hearing of the impeachment of Lord Mordaunt, and in November of the same year spoke in defence of Clarendon, so far as the sale of Dunkirk was concerned, and opposed his banishment, and this appears to have been the last time that he addressed the house.
BERGUES, a town of northern France, in the department of Nord, at the junction of the canal of the Colme with canals to Dunkirk and Fumes (in Belgium), 5 m.
Of Dunkirk by rail.
The first great trunk line in the country was that of the Erie railway, opened from Piermont, on the Hudson river, to Dunkirk, on Lake Erie, in 1853.
Other ports of entry are Buffalo and Dunkirk, on Lake Erie, Niagara Falls, on the Niagara river, Ogdensburg and Cape Vincent, on the St Lawrence river, Plattsburg, on Lake Champlain, Oswego, on Lake Ontario, Rochester, on the Genesee river, Albany and Syracuse in the interior, and Sag Harbor at the E.
Vernon, 25,996; Cohoes, 24,183; Amsterdam, 2 3,943; Oswego, 22,572; New Rochelle, 20, 479; Gloversville, 18,672; Lockport, 17,552; Rome, 16,562; and Dunkirk, 15,250.
From 1792 to 1799 he was occupied with the measurement of the arc of the meridian extending from Dunkirk to Barcelona, and published a detailed account of the operations in Base du systeme metrique (3 vols., 1806, 1807, 1810), for which he was awarded in 181 o the decennial prize of the Institute.
During the Revolution, he was one of the three members of the council established to introduce the decimal system, and he was also a member of the commission appointed to determine the length of the metre, for which purpose the calculations, &c., connected with the arc of the meridian from Barcelona to Dunkirk were revised.
In order to be of assistance to his brother Charles, who was then campaigning in Scotland, Henry was despatched in the summer of 1745 to France, where he was placed in nominal command of French troops at Dunkirk, with which the marquis d'Argenson had some vague idea of invading England.
He at first, by means of an alliance with Cromwell, recovered the north-western cities of France, though at the price of yielding Dunkirk to the Protector.
The sea was smooth, the night dark with wind from N.W., but hardly had the ships left Dunkirk when the "Sappho" blew out a manhole joint in her boiler and had to put back.
Dunkirk, as a nest of freebooters who preyed upon Dutch commerce, was made the objective of a daring offensive campaign in 1600 by the orders of the States-General under the influence of Oldenbarneveldt in the teeth of the opposi tion of the stadholders Maurice and William Louis .
DUNKIRK, a city and a port of entry of Chautauqua county, New York, U.S.A., on the S.
The city is served by the Pennsylvania, the Erie, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, and the Dunkirk, Allegheny Valley & Pittsburg railways, by the electric line of the Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co., and by several lines of freight and passenger steamships.
Dunkirk is attractively situated high above the lake, and has several parks, including Point Gratiot and Washington; in the city are the Dunkirk free library, the Brooks Memorial hospital (1891), and St Mary's academy.
Dunkirk was first settled about 1805.
Being employed upon the fortifications of Dunkirk, he attracted the notice of the director of the works, and was selected as a member of the Ecole polytechnique then to be established under G.
Three ferries plied incessantly between Richborough and Calais and Dunkirk, connecting railhead in England with railhead in France.
For its use, Colbert reconstructed the works and arsenal of Toulon, founded the port and arsenal of Rochefort, and the naval schools of Rochefort, Dieppe and Saint-Malo, and fortified, with some assistance from Vauban (who, however, belonged to the party of his rival Louvois), among other ports those of Calais, Dunkirk, Brest and Havre.
On the same day Louvois orders Vauroy, major of the citadel of Dunkirk, to seize Dauger and conduct him to Pignerol.
Then, on the 19th of July, Dauger is arrested at Dunkirk, the regular port from England.
This plan, however, came to nothing; projected risings in England were betrayed, and by the capture of Dunkirk in June 1658, after the battle of the Dunes, by the French and Cromwell's Ironsides, the Spanish cause in Flanders was ruined.
In 1661 under Clarendon's rule, the evil precedent had been admitted of receiving money from France, in 1662 Dunkirk had been sold to Louis, and in February 1667 during the Dutch war a secret alliance had been made with Louis, Charles promising him a free hand in the Netherlands and Louis undertaking to support Charles's designs " in or out of the kingdom."
There is more than one meaning of Dunkirk discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
The war of 1870-7r found Boudin impecunious but great, for then there had well begun the series of freshly and vigorously conceived canvases and panels, which record the impressions of a precursor of the Impressionists in presence of the Channel waters, and of those autumn skies, or skies of summer, now radiant, now uncertain, which hung over the small ports and the rocky or chalk-cliff coasts, over the watering-places, Trouville, Dieppe, and over those larger harbours, with port and avant-port and bassin, of Dunkirk, of Havre.
France ceded to England Newfoundland, Nova Scotia or Acadia, the island of St Kitts or St Christopher, and the Hudson's Bay Territory ("sinum et fretum de Hudson, una cum omnibus terris, maribus, maritimis, fluviis, locisque, in dicto sinu et freto sitis"), and promised to demolish the fortifications of Dunkirk and to fill up its harbour.
The principal of these are Toledo, Sandusky, Huron, Vermilion, Lorain, Cleveland, Fairport, Ashtabula, Conneaut, Erie (a natural harbour), Dunkirk and Buffalo, Rondeau, Port Stanley, Port Burwell, Port Dover, Port Maitland and Port Colborne.
When Conde and Valenciennes had been taken, the British went off to assail Dunkirk and the Prussians retired into Luxemburg.
The committee decided in favour of the latter and a commission was appointed to measure the arc of the meridian between Dunkirk and Mont Jany, near Barcelona.
He accepted the charge of a corvette, the "Anacreon," placed at his disposal by the French government, in which, accompanied by a few leading United Irishmen, and supplied with a small force of men and a considerable quantity of arms and ammunition for distribution in Ireland, he sailed from Dunkirk and arrived at the isle of Aran, off the coast of Donegal, on the 16th of September 1798.
Gave him the Scottish title of Lord Rutherford and the governorship of Dunkirk, which had been acquired by the Protector Oliver Cromwell.