Maintain the heat in hotbeds and pits by means of fresh dung linings.
A layer of dung about 8 or io in.
The following are organic manures: Farm-yard manure consists of the mixed dung of horses and cattle thrown together, and more or less soaked with liquid drainings of the stable or byre.
Thickness of hot dung, soil is put on to the depth of 8 in., and the frames set over all.
It has long been known that when organic materials such as the dung and urine of animals, or even the bodies of animals and plants, are applied to the soil, the nitrogen within them becomes oxidized, and ultimately appears in the form of nitrate of lime, potash or some other base.
The chief and almost the only use of dung, he thinks, is to divide the earth, to dissolve " this terrestrial matter, which affords nutriment to the mouths of vegetable roots "; and this can be done more completely by tillage.
From the Valley Gate the wall took an easterly course for a distance of woo cubits to the Dung Gate, near which on the east was the Fountain Gate, not far from the lower pool of Siloam.
The phosphatic deposit has doubtless been produced by the long-continued action of a thick bed of sea-fowl dung, which converted the carbonate of the underlying limestone into phosphate.
The cultivation of vines in pots is very commonly practised with good results, and pot-vines are very useful to force for the earliest crop. The plants should be raised from eyes, and grown as strong as possible in the way already noted, in rich turfy loam mixed with about one-third of horse dung and a little bone dust.
The steps in the breaking down of the highly complex nitrogenous proteid compounds contained in the humus of the soil, or applied to the latter by the farmer in the form of dung and organic refuse generally, are many and varied; most frequently the insoluble proteids are changed by various kinds of putrefactive bacteria into soluble proteids (peptones, &c.), these into simpler amido-bodies, and these again sooner or later into compounds of ammonia.
It is only when these conditions are attended to that decay and nitrification of dung, guano, fish-meal, sulphate of ammonia and other manures take place, and the constituents which they contain become available to the crops for whose benefit they have been applied to the land.
Many bacteria are known which are capable of denitrification, some of them being abundant in fresh dung and upon old straw.
His chapter on the flea, in which he not only describes its structure, but traces out the whole history of its metamorphoses from its first emergence from the egg, is full of interest - not so much for the exactness of his observations, as for its incidental revelation of the extraordinary ignorance then prevalent in regard to the origin and propagation of "this minute and despised creature," which some asserted to be produced from sand, others from dust, others from the dung of pigeons, and others from urine, but which he showed to be "endowed with as great perfection in its kind as any large animal," and proved to breed in the regular way of winged insects.
His corpse, after suffering every indignity, was quartered by the public hangman, and burnt with dung by the Romanist soldiers.
Of clay and earthenware there were many varieties of domestic dishes, cups and pipkins, and crucibles or melting pots made of clay and horse dung and still retaining the drossy coating of the melted bronze.
The dung of black cattle, horses, sheep, goats, &c., which contains sal ammoniac ready formed, is collected during the first four months of the year, when the animals feed on the spring grass, a kind of clover.
Nauseous flowers, dull and yellowish and dark purple in colour and often spotted, with a smell attractive to carrion flies and dung flies, e.g.
Each party dubbed the other stercoranists (dung-feasters), and the controversy was often marred by indecencies.
Sometimes various lichens occur abnormally in such unexpected habitats as dried dung of sheep, bleached bones of reindeer and whales, old leather, iron and glass, in districts where the species are abundant.
When the heat of the original bed subsides, linings of fermenting dung must be added, and these must be kept active by occasional turnings and the addition of fresh material as often as required.
When heat is required, it is sometimes supplied by means of fermenting dung, or dung and leaves, or tanner's bark, but it is much more economically provided by hot-water pipes.
Plant houses were formerly heated in a variety of ways - by fermenting organic matter, such as dung, by smoke flues, by steam and by hot water circulating in iron pipes.
Horse dung is generally the principal ingredient in all hot bed manure; and, in its partially decomposed state, as afforded by exhausted hot beds, it is well adapted for garden use.
Cow dung is less fertilizing than horse dung, but being slower in its action it is more durable; it is also cooler, and therefore better for hot dry sandy soils.
Pig dung is very powerful, containing more nitrogen than horse dung; it is therefore desirable that it should undergo moderate fermentation, which will be secured by mixing it with litter and a portion of earth.
Pigeon dung approaches guano in its power as manure.
The dung of the domestic fowl is very similar in character.
Liquid manure, consisting of the drainings of dung-heaps, stables, cowsheds, &c., or of urine collected from dwelling houses or other sources, is a most valuable and powerful stimulant, and can be readily applied to the roots of growing plants.
A single crock may be used in some cases, and in others no crock at all, but a handful of half-decayed leaves or half-decayed dung thrown into the bottom of the pot.
The lilac would be better placed in a dark shed heated to about 70° or 80°, in which some dung and leaves could be allowed to lie and ferment, giving off both a genial heat and moisture.
Bedding plants thrive best in a light loam, liberally manured with thoroughly rotten dung from an old hotbed or thoroughly decomposed cow droppings and leaf-mould.
Shallow planting, whether of wall trees or standards, is generally to be preferred, a covering of a few inches of soil being sufficient for the roots, but a surface of at least equal size to, the surface of the hole should be covered with dung or litter so as to restrain evaporation and preserve moisture.
Make up beds for mushrooms with well-prepared dung towards the end of the month.
Plant out vegetable marrows and pumpkins on dung-ridges, under hand-glasses.
Force asparagus, rhubarb and sea-kale, in the mushroomhouse, in pits, or in the open border under boxes or cases surrounded and covered by well-fermented stable dung and leaves.
The flex nitive animal gods are not to be confused with the animal not ns ascribed to many cosmic deities; thus when the sun-god Osii was pictured as a scarabaeus, or dung-beetle, rolling its ball Isis lung behind it, this was certainly mere poetical imagery.
The floors, mostly of mud covered with dung, are fouled with spittle, vomit, and urine, and, being seldom or never cleaned out, foster a gradual accumulation of poison, to which infected rats and the concealment of illness contribute.
Adherents of the smriti or tradition, which has a numerous following amongst southern Brahmans, and, whilst professing Sankara's doctrines, is usually classed as one of the Saiva sects, its members adopting the horizontal sectarial mark peculiar to Saivas, consisting in their case of a triple line, the tripundra, prepared from the ashes of burnt cow-dung and painted on the forehead.
Deep, is filled with hot dung, on which soil to the depth of 6 in.
Deep filled with hot dung, the sets being planted 5 in.
Most of the forms in question are found growing on the dung of herbivorous animals, but the bacteria occur not only in the alimentary canal of the animal but also free in the air.
Velutinus, a slender, ringless, hollow-stemmed, blackgilled fungus, common in gardens and about dung and stumps; it is about the size of a mushroom, but thinner in all its parts and far more brittle; it has a black hairy fringe hanging round the edge of the cap when fresh.
The true mushroom itself is to a great extent a dung-borne species, therefore mushroom-beds are always liable to an invasion from other dung-borne forms. The spores of all fungi are constantly floating about in the air, and when the spores of dung-infesting species alight on a mushroom-bed they find a nidus already prepared that exactly suits them; and if the spawn of the new-comer becomes more profuse than that of the mushroom the stranger takes up his position at the expense of the mushroom.
The stable manure is taken into the tortuous passages of these cellars, and the spawn introduced from masses of dry dung where it occurs naturally.
In France mushroom-growers do not use the compact blocks or bricks of spawn so familiar in England, but much smaller flakes or "leaves" of dry dung in which the spawn or mycelium can be seen to exist.
The common mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is propagated by spores, the fine black dust seen to be thrown off when a mature specimen is laid on white paper or a white dish; these give rise to what is known as the "spawn" or mycelium, which consists of whitish threads permeating dried dung or similar substances, and which, when planted in a proper medium, runs through the mass, and eventually develops the fructification known as the mushroom.
With this or a mixture of horse-dung, loam, old mushroom-bed dung, and half-decayed leaves, the beds are built up in successive layers of about 3 in.
The beds made partly of old mushroom-bed dung often contain sufficient spawn to yield a crop, without the introduction of brick or cake spawn, but it is advisable to spawn them in the regular way.
Koirpos, dung, and X LOo, stone), the fossilized excrements of extinct animals.
Stridulating organs among beetle-larvae have been noted, especially in the wood-feeding grub of the stag-beetles (Lucanidae) and their allies the Passalidae, and in the dung-eating grubs of the dor-beetles (Geotrupes), which belong to the chafer family (Scarabaeidae).
27), and allied genera - feed both in the adult and larval stages, on dung or decaying animal matter.
The female beetle in spring-time collects dung, which she forms into a ball by continuous rolling, sometimes assisted by a companion.
They reappear to bury another supply of dung, which serves as food for the larvae.
Here again both capital and labour are short, and the cultivation of the soil suffers from the fact that, owing to the absence of timber, dry dung is used for fuel instead of being employed as manure.
Other genera of South American ants - A pterostigma and Cyphomyrmex - make similar fungal cultivations, but they use wood, grain or dung as the substratum instead of leaf fragments.
London street and stable dung was carried to a distance by water, and appears from later writers to have been got for the trouble of removing.
The following passage indicates the contemporary theory of manuring: - " In thy tillage are these special opportunities to improve it, either by liming, marling, sanding, earthing, mudding, snayl-codding, mucking, chalking, pidgeons-dung, hens-dung, hogs-dung or by any other means as some by rags, some by coarse wool, by pitch marks, and tarry stuff, any oyly stuff, salt and many things more, yea indeed any thing almost that bath any liquidness, foulness, saltness or good moysture in it, is very naturall inrichment to almost any sort of land."
This is but an imitation of the hand-hoe, or a succenadeum to it, and can neither supply the use of dung nor fallow, and may be properly called scratch-hoeing."
One genus of Thomisidae (Phognarachne), which inhabits the Oriental region, adopts the clever device of spinning on the surface of a leaf a sheet of web resembling the fluid portions of a splash of bird's dung, the more solid central portions being represented by the spider itself, which waits in the middle of the patch to seize the butterflies or other insects that habitually feed on birds' excrement and are attracted to the patch mistaking it for their natural food.
A little vinegar is poured into each pot; they are then covered with plates of sheet lead, buried in horse-dung or spent tanner's bark, and left to themselves for a considerable time.
The dried dung of the llama (taquia) is generally used as fuel, as in pre-Spanish times, for roasting ores, as also a species of grass called ichu (Stipa incana), and a singular woody fungus, called yareta (Azorella umbellifera), found growing on the rocks at elevations exceeding 12,000 ft.
The Myxobacteria are most easily obtained by keeping at a temperature of 30-35° C. in the dark dung which has lain exposed to the air for at least eight days.
The huge courtyard of the Rostovs' house was littered with wisps of hay and with dung from the horses, and not a soul was to be seen there.