The spores on germination make a white felted mat, more or less dense, of mycelium; this, when compacted with dry, half-decomposed dung, is the mushroom spawn of gardeners.
Velutinus, a slender, ringless, hollow-stemmed, blackgilled fungus, common in gardens and about dung and stumps; it is about the size of a mushroom, but thinner in all its parts and far more brittle; it has a black hairy fringe hanging round the edge of the cap when fresh.
Besides these there are numerous other black-gilled species which find a place in baskets - some species far too small to bear any resemblance to a mushroom, others large and deliquescent, generally belonging to the stumpand dung-borne genus Coprinus.
The true mushroom itself is to a great extent a dung-borne species, therefore mushroom-beds are always liable to an invasion from other dung-borne forms. The spores of all fungi are constantly floating about in the air, and when the spores of dung-infesting species alight on a mushroom-bed they find a nidus already prepared that exactly suits them; and if the spawn of the new-comer becomes more profuse than that of the mushroom the stranger takes up his position at the expense of the mushroom.
The stable manure is taken into the tortuous passages of these cellars, and the spawn introduced from masses of dry dung where it occurs naturally.
In France mushroom-growers do not use the compact blocks or bricks of spawn so familiar in England, but much smaller flakes or "leaves" of dry dung in which the spawn or mycelium can be seen to exist.
The common mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is propagated by spores, the fine black dust seen to be thrown off when a mature specimen is laid on white paper or a white dish; these give rise to what is known as the "spawn" or mycelium, which consists of whitish threads permeating dried dung or similar substances, and which, when planted in a proper medium, runs through the mass, and eventually develops the fructification known as the mushroom.
A layer of dung about 8 or io in.
With this or a mixture of horse-dung, loam, old mushroom-bed dung, and half-decayed leaves, the beds are built up in successive layers of about 3 in.
The beds made partly of old mushroom-bed dung often contain sufficient spawn to yield a crop, without the introduction of brick or cake spawn, but it is advisable to spawn them in the regular way.
Koirpos, dung, and X LOo, stone), the fossilized excrements of extinct animals.
Stridulating organs among beetle-larvae have been noted, especially in the wood-feeding grub of the stag-beetles (Lucanidae) and their allies the Passalidae, and in the dung-eating grubs of the dor-beetles (Geotrupes), which belong to the chafer family (Scarabaeidae).
27), and allied genera - feed both in the adult and larval stages, on dung or decaying animal matter.
The female beetle in spring-time collects dung, which she forms into a ball by continuous rolling, sometimes assisted by a companion.
They reappear to bury another supply of dung, which serves as food for the larvae.
Here again both capital and labour are short, and the cultivation of the soil suffers from the fact that, owing to the absence of timber, dry dung is used for fuel instead of being employed as manure.
Other genera of South American ants - A pterostigma and Cyphomyrmex - make similar fungal cultivations, but they use wood, grain or dung as the substratum instead of leaf fragments.
London street and stable dung was carried to a distance by water, and appears from later writers to have been got for the trouble of removing.
The following passage indicates the contemporary theory of manuring: - " In thy tillage are these special opportunities to improve it, either by liming, marling, sanding, earthing, mudding, snayl-codding, mucking, chalking, pidgeons-dung, hens-dung, hogs-dung or by any other means as some by rags, some by coarse wool, by pitch marks, and tarry stuff, any oyly stuff, salt and many things more, yea indeed any thing almost that bath any liquidness, foulness, saltness or good moysture in it, is very naturall inrichment to almost any sort of land."
The chief and almost the only use of dung, he thinks, is to divide the earth, to dissolve " this terrestrial matter, which affords nutriment to the mouths of vegetable roots "; and this can be done more completely by tillage.
This is but an imitation of the hand-hoe, or a succenadeum to it, and can neither supply the use of dung nor fallow, and may be properly called scratch-hoeing."
One genus of Thomisidae (Phognarachne), which inhabits the Oriental region, adopts the clever device of spinning on the surface of a leaf a sheet of web resembling the fluid portions of a splash of bird's dung, the more solid central portions being represented by the spider itself, which waits in the middle of the patch to seize the butterflies or other insects that habitually feed on birds' excrement and are attracted to the patch mistaking it for their natural food.
The following are organic manures: Farm-yard manure consists of the mixed dung of horses and cattle thrown together, and more or less soaked with liquid drainings of the stable or byre.
Maintain the heat in hotbeds and pits by means of fresh dung linings.
Thickness of hot dung, soil is put on to the depth of 8 in., and the frames set over all.
The huge courtyard of the Rostovs' house was littered with wisps of hay and with dung from the horses, and not a soul was to be seen there.