The duma, or council, still attended to all the details of the administration; the old boyars still retained their ancient offices and dignities.
The imperial style is still " Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias "; but in the fundamental laws as remodelled between the imperial manifesto of 17/30 October and the opening of the first Duma 1 See A.
It is noteworthy that even the third Duma in its address to the throne, if it avoided the tabooed word " Constitution," avoided also all mention of autocracy.
By the manifesto of the 17/30th of October 1905 the emperor voluntarily limited his legislative power by decreeing that no measure was to become law without the consent of the Imperial Duma, a freely elected national assembly.
By the law of the 20th of February 1906 the Council of the Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House; and from this time the legislative power has been exercised normally by the emperor only in concert with the two chambers.
As a legislative body the powers of the Council are co-ordinate with those of the Duma; in practice, however, it has seldom if ever initiated legislation.6 The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which forms the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consists (since the ukaz of the znd of June 1907) on the 27th of April 1906, while the name and princi p le of autocracy was jealously preserved, the word " unlimited " vanished.
The members of the Duma are elected by electoral colleges in each government, and these in their turn are elected, like the zemstvos (see below), by electoral assemblies chosen by the three classes of landed proprietors, citizens and peasants.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
These elect their delegates to the Duma direct, and though their votes are divided into two curias (on the basis of taxable property) in such a way as to give the advantage to wealth, each returning the same number of delegates, the democratic colleges can at least return members of their own complexion.'
Under extraordinary circumstances when the Duma is not sitting.
These ordinances must, however, be of a temporary nature, must not infringe the fundamental laws or statutes passed by the two chambers, or change the electoral system, and must be laid upon the table of the Duma at the first opportunity.
Since, however, the emperor has the power of proroguing or dissolving the Duma as often as he pleases, it is clear that these temporary ordinances might in effect be made permanent.
It should be noted, none the less, that the third Duma succeeded in establishing its position, and that in view of its useful activities even the extreme Right came to realize that there could be no return to the old undisguised absolutist regime (see History, below, ad fin.).
It was reserved for the third Duma, after the revolution, to begin the reversal of this process.'
In 1909 the third Duma restored the election of justices of the peace.
This measure, which was endorsed by the third Duma in an act passed on the 21st of December 1908, is calculated to have far-reaching and profound effects upon the rural economy of Russia.
When the Boyar Duma became the Senate, and the Prikazi or administrative departments were organized under the name of Colleges, and when every important town was endowed with a Rathhaus, a Polizeimeister, gilds, aldermen, and all the municipal paraphernalia of western Europe, the vices of the old institutions survived in the new.
The second Duma, which met on the 5th of March 1907, avoided some of the mistakes of its predecessor, but as a legislative assembly it showed itself equally incompetent, and a large section of its members were implicated in a well-organized attempt to spread sedition in the army by revolutionary propaganda.
The third Duma was subsequently convoked for the 14th of November 1907.
In 1909 the number of exiles for political reasons from Russia was reckoned at 180,000; but the third Duma, purged and packed by an ingenious franchise system, was in its third year passing measures of beneficent legislation, in complete harmony with the government.
When, however, on the 6th of August, the new law was promulgated, it was found that the " Imperial Duma " 5 was to be no more than a consultative body, charged with the examination of legislative proposals before these came before the Imperial Council, the duty and right of passing them into law being still reserved for the autocrat alone.
Duma =council, assembly (dumat, to think over, reflect upon).
Meanwhile the political parties which were to divide the new Duma had taken shape.
3 Four days later the government dissolved the Duma, M.
Apart from the punishment which afterwards fell on its authors,4 was to show how little the majority of the dissolved Duma had represented the Russian people.
The second Duma met on the 6th of March 1907.
The temper of the second Duma, was, indeed, even more democratic than that of the first; but M.
The crisis came with the discovery of a treasonable plot for the subornation of the army, in which many Socialist members of the Duma were involved.
The excuse for which the government had been waiting Alteration was thus provided, and two days later the Duma was by ukaz dissolved.
An imperial ukaz fixed the new elections of the for the 14th of September, and the meeting of the electoral third Duma for the 14th of November; at the same law.
The result was that third in the third Duma, which met on the 15th of November Duma.
On the whole, the new Duma was fairly representative of the changed temper of the Russian people, disillusioned and weary of anarchy.
The congress of zemstvos, hitherto the focus of Liberalism, had petitioned the government, before the opening of the third Duma, to take measures for the restoration of order.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
The most far-reaching of these reforms, carried in the first session of the third Duma, was the partial abolition of the communal and family ownership of land, which involved the establishment of a class of true peasant-proprietors.
2 Besides this, the Duma had passed before its adjournment on the 28th of October 1908 much useful legislation, some 300 bills in all, including two for the building of important railways on the Amur and in Siberia.
The Duma endorsed this all but unanimously, and as the result the Grand-dukes Peter and Sergius resigned their posts of inspector-general of Engineers and Ordnance respectively, and the Grand-duke Nicholas his chairmanship of the Committee of National Defence.
A year later the Duma again came into collision with the government in a matter highly illuminating of the struggle between the ancient traditions and the new ideas in Russia.
Thus a step forward was made in securing the freedom of conscience proclaimed in the October manifesto and denounced by a synod of Orthodox bishops at Kiev in 1908, though the rights granted by the Duma were seriously curtailed in the Imperial Council, and have been largely rendered a dead letter by the action of the administration.
Ceremonial visit to the Duma at St Petersburg, and in this " neo-Slav " demonstration M.
Dmowski, leader of the Polish party in the Duma, took part.
In the following year, however, the situation was completely altered, a result due to the growing anti-Polish feeling in the Duma and, more especially, to the support given by the Austrian Sla y s to the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Even the remnant of the " Cadets " had by this time renounced their sympathy with Polish aspirations, and in the matter of Finland the Duma proved itself even more imperial than the emperor himself.
Here it may suffice to mention, as illustrating the changed temper of the Russian national assembly, The Duma that the Russian majority of the Duma included and among the imperial questions in Finland which the Finland.
That in the work of restoring its military position the Russian government had the support of the Russian parliament was proved by a subsidy of Li 1,000,000 voted by the Duma, on the 30th of December 1909, for the special service of the reorganization and redistribution of the army.
Harper, The New Electoral Law for the Russian Duma (Chicago, 1908); J.
Kluchovski, Boyarskaya Duma (1882), an account of the boyars' duma from the 10th to the 17th century; Maksim M.
Much was hoped from the duma, but this body has proved bitterly opposed to the Jewish claim for liberty.
He was elected by the Moscow municipal Duma to be a member of the executive (Uprava), and took active part in the self-government of the city.
In the third Duma, elected on a restricted franchise, the Octobrists assumed the leading role.