Meanwhile the political parties which were to divide the new Duma had taken shape.
The duma, or council, still attended to all the details of the administration; the old boyars still retained their ancient offices and dignities.
The imperial style is still " Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias "; but in the fundamental laws as remodelled between the imperial manifesto of 17/30 October and the opening of the first Duma 1 See A.
It is noteworthy that even the third Duma in its address to the throne, if it avoided the tabooed word " Constitution," avoided also all mention of autocracy.
By the manifesto of the 17/30th of October 1905 the emperor voluntarily limited his legislative power by decreeing that no measure was to become law without the consent of the Imperial Duma, a freely elected national assembly.
By the law of the 20th of February 1906 the Council of the Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House; and from this time the legislative power has been exercised normally by the emperor only in concert with the two chambers.
As a legislative body the powers of the Council are co-ordinate with those of the Duma; in practice, however, it has seldom if ever initiated legislation.6 The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which forms the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consists (since the ukaz of the znd of June 1907) on the 27th of April 1906, while the name and princi p le of autocracy was jealously preserved, the word " unlimited " vanished.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
These elect their delegates to the Duma direct, and though their votes are divided into two curias (on the basis of taxable property) in such a way as to give the advantage to wealth, each returning the same number of delegates, the democratic colleges can at least return members of their own complexion.'
Under extraordinary circumstances when the Duma is not sitting.
These ordinances must, however, be of a temporary nature, must not infringe the fundamental laws or statutes passed by the two chambers, or change the electoral system, and must be laid upon the table of the Duma at the first opportunity.
Since, however, the emperor has the power of proroguing or dissolving the Duma as often as he pleases, it is clear that these temporary ordinances might in effect be made permanent.
It was reserved for the third Duma, after the revolution, to begin the reversal of this process.'
In 1909 the third Duma restored the election of justices of the peace.
This measure, which was endorsed by the third Duma in an act passed on the 21st of December 1908, is calculated to have far-reaching and profound effects upon the rural economy of Russia.
The second Duma, which met on the 5th of March 1907, avoided some of the mistakes of its predecessor, but as a legislative assembly it showed itself equally incompetent, and a large section of its members were implicated in a well-organized attempt to spread sedition in the army by revolutionary propaganda.
The third Duma was subsequently convoked for the 14th of November 1907.
In 1909 the number of exiles for political reasons from Russia was reckoned at 180,000; but the third Duma, purged and packed by an ingenious franchise system, was in its third year passing measures of beneficent legislation, in complete harmony with the government.
When, however, on the 6th of August, the new law was promulgated, it was found that the " Imperial Duma " 5 was to be no more than a consultative body, charged with the examination of legislative proposals before these came before the Imperial Council, the duty and right of passing them into law being still reserved for the autocrat alone.
Duma =council, assembly (dumat, to think over, reflect upon).
3 Four days later the government dissolved the Duma, M.
The " Cadets " refused to accept this action and, in imitation of the famous meeting in the tennis-court at Versailles, adjourned to Vyborg in Finland, where, under the ex- The president of the Duma, M.
Apart from the punishment which afterwards fell on its authors,4 was to show how little the majority of the dissolved Duma had represented the Russian people.
The second Duma met on the 6th of March 1907.
The temper of the second Duma, was, indeed, even more democratic than that of the first; but M.
The crisis came with the discovery of a treasonable plot for the subornation of the army, in which many Socialist members of the Duma were involved.
The excuse for which the government had been waiting Alteration was thus provided, and two days later the Duma was by ukaz dissolved.
An imperial ukaz fixed the new elections of the for the 14th of September, and the meeting of the electoral third Duma for the 14th of November; at the same law.
The result was that third in the third Duma, which met on the 15th of November Duma.
On the whole, the new Duma was fairly representative of the changed temper of the Russian people, disillusioned and weary of anarchy.
The congress of zemstvos, hitherto the focus of Liberalism, had petitioned the government, before the opening of the third Duma, to take measures for the restoration of order.
The result of these interviews was a series of projects of reform, including a constitutional system based on a series of dumas, the cantonal assembly (volost) electing the duma of the district, the dumas of the districts electing that of the province or government, and these electing the Duma of the empire.
As mediating power between the autocrat and the Duma there was to be a nominated council of state.
Only Poles were elected to the first Duma in 1906.
As the imperial ukase which followed the dissolution of the second Duma in 1907 conferred more power upon the great landowners, it was modified as regards Lithuania by a nationality clause which provided that the total of electors of each class should be in proportion to the amount of land possessed by the respective nationalities in the district.
In the third Duma the five delegates allotted to the non-Russian population of Vilna government were all Poles who joined the Polish party; in Kovno government three delegates were Lithuanians, one was a Pole and one a Jew.
He managed to get into the Fourth Duma through the joint protection of Bieletzky, the Russian Fouche, and Lenin.
He was elected by the Moscow municipal Duma to be a member of the executive (Uprava), and took active part in the self-government of the city.
In the third Duma, elected on a restricted franchise, the Octobrists assumed the leading role.
In the elections to the fourth Duma he failed to secure a seat.
Much was hoped from the duma, but this body has proved bitterly opposed to the Jewish claim for liberty.
The members of the Duma, moreover, were placed at the mercy of the government by a clause empowering the Directing Senate to suspend or deprive them.