Next, south of the Great Northern, lay the Northern Pacific railway, starting on the west from Portland, Ore., and from Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., and extending east to Duluth, St Paul and Minneapolis by way of Helena, Mont.
Eveleth is served by the Duluth, Missabe & Northern and the Duluth & Iron Range railways.
Within the boundaries of the United States the northernmost of the transcontinental lines was the Great Northern railway, extending from a point opposite Vancouver, B.C., and from Seattle, Wash., to Duluth, on Lake Superior, and to St Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., where connexion through to Chicago was made over an allied line,.
Cloquet is served by the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, the Duluth & North-Eastern, and (for freight only) the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul railways.
Of Superior and Duluth, in the N.
The fisheries, which are of great value, are carefully supervised and systematically replenished from the State Fish Hatchery at St Paul, and the Federal Fish Hatchery maintained at Duluth, in which particular attention is devoted to the fish of Lake Superior.
In most localities the prevailing winds are northwest in winter and southerly in summer, but at Duluth, on the shore of Lake Superior, they are south-west during November, December and January and north-east during all other months.
Minneapolis is the chief flour-making centre of the world, and the cities at the " Head of the Lakes " (Duluth, Minnesota, and Superior, Wisconsin, considered industrially as one place) constitute the second largest centre.
Seven navigable rivers within or on the borders of the state - the Red River of the north, the Red Lake River, Rainy River, the Minnesota, the Mississippi, the St Croix and the St Louis 1 - give facilities for transport by water that exert an important competing influence on freight charges; and at the " Head of the Lakes " (Duluth-Superior) many lines of steamships on the Great Lakes, providing direct or indirect connexion with the Eastern and Southern states, make that port in respect to tonnage the first in the United States.
St Paul and Duluth are ports of entry.
By the state census of 1905 the population of the principal cities was as follows: Minneapolis, 261,954; St Paul, 197,023; Duluth, 64,942; Winona, 20,334; Stillwater, 12, 435; and Mankato, 10,996; by the same census four other cities, all in the mining region in the north-east, had passed the 5000 limit, viz.
For the revision of the constitution it is necessary that two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legislature vote for the call of a constitutional convention, that a majority of all electors voting at the next general election approve the call for the convention, and that the convention consist of as many members as the house of representatives, who shall be chosen in the same manner, and shall meet within three months after the general 1 At International Falls on Rainy River and at Duluth on the St Louis immense water-power is utilized for manufacturing.
There are state normal schools at Winona (1860), Mankato(1868), St Cloud (1869),Moorhead (1888) and Duluth (1902).
In 1679 Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut (Duluth), as agent for a company of Canadian merchants which sought to establish trading posts on the Lakes, explored the country from the head of Lake Superior to Mille Lacs and planted the arms of Louis XIV.
It is served by the Chicago & North Western, the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, and the Lake Superior and Ishpeming railways.
The first white man known to have visited the site was Father Hennepin in 1680; later in the same year the trader Du Lhut (or Duluth) was here.
As an example of a swing bridge, that between Duluth and Superior at the head of Lake Superior over the St Louis river may be described.
It is served by the Chicago & North-Western, the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, and the Lake Superior & Ishpeming railways.
Almost all the great steamship transportation lines of the Great Lakes have an eastern terminus at Buffalo, which thus has direct passenger and freight connexion with Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee and the "Head of the Lakes" (Duluth-Superior).
Of Minneapolis and St Paul, on Superior, St Louis and Allouez bays at the head of Lake Superior, and directly opposite Duluth, Minnesota, with which it is connected by ferry and by railway and road bridges.
Superior is served by the Northern Pacific, the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, the Wisconsin Central, the Great Northern, the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste Marie, and the Chicago & North-Western railways, and (for freight only) by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul.
A belt line railway connects the several systems. Superior shares with Duluth one of the finest natural inland harbours in the world.
Much iron and copper ore is shipped from the Duluth-Superior harbour; and large quantities of coal, brought by lake boats, are distributed from here throughout the American and Canadian North-west.
The total tonnage of the Duluth - Superior Harbour was estimated in 1908 to be exceeded in the United States only by that of New York and that of Philadelphia.
Pierre Esprit Radisson and Medard Chouart des Groseilliers probably visited the site of Superior in 1661, and it is practically certain that other French coureurs-des-bois were here at different times before Daniel Greysolon, Sieur Du Lhut (Duluth), established a trading post in the neighbourhood about 1678.
The principal lines are the Michigan Central, the Pere Marquette, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the Grand Rapids & Indiana, the Ann Arbor, the Grand Trunk, the Chicago & North-Western, the Duluth South Shore & Atlantic, the Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault Ste.
The range of latitude from Point Barrow in the Arctic Ocean to Cape Muzon is almost 17 degrees - as great as from New Orleans to Duluth; the range of longitude from Attu Island to the head of Portland Canal is 58 degrees - considerably greater than from New York to San Francisco.
Hibbing is served by the Great Northern and the Duluth, Missabe & Northern railways.
Duluth, Superior, Port Wing, Wis., Ontonagon, Mich., and Grand Marais, Mich., are harbours with entrances formed by parallel jetties extending across obstructing bars.
The principal freight shipped eastward consists of flour, wheat and other grains, through Duluth - Superior from the United States, and through Fort William - Port Arthur from the Canadian prairies; copper ore from the mines on the south shore; iron ore in immense quantities from both shores, ?
Marie, in which has been absorbed the old Wisconsin Central, crosses the state and extends into the Canadian North-West, sharing in the heavy grain traffic of that section, and, like the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, which runs along the Lake Superior shore, is a link in the transcontinental system of the Canadian Pacific, which controls both these roads.
Of the Mississippi, which include St Paul, part of Minneapolis and Duluth, was cut off from Wisconsin on her admission to the Union to form with other land farther west the new Territory of Minnesota.
The great elevator centres are in Duluth, St Paul, Minneapolis, Chicago and Buffalo.
Duluth, on Lake Superior, is, surprising to say, the second port in the United States in point of tonnage.
The railways of the north-west have a monopoly of the business of hauling wheat, with the result that it costs 20 cents to ship a bushel of wheat from the Dakota field to Duluth, which is as much as it costs to forward it from Duluth to Liverpool.
The bushel of wheat, or an equivalent amount of flour, can be shipped from Minneapolis or Duluth to almost any point in western Europe for from 20 to 25 cents.