In 1814-1815, before the decrees of the Vienna Congress were known, an extraordinary attempt was made by Philippe d'Auvergne of the British navy, the cousin and adopted son of the last duke, to revive the ancient duchy of Bouillon.
Having borne the title of duke of Montpensier until his grandfather's death in 1752, he became duke of Chartres, and in 1769 married Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon-Penthievre, daughter and heiress of the duke of Penthievre, grand admiral of France, and the richest heiress of the time.
On the 26th of January the grand-duke issued a circular letter to the Tuscan bishops suggesting certain reforms, especially in the matter of the restoration of the authority of diocesan synods, the purging of the missals and breviaries of legends, the assertion of episcopal as against papal authority, the curtailing of the privileges of the monastic orders, and the better education of the clergy.
To us it is incomprehensible that millions of Christian men killed and tortured each other either because Napoleon was ambitious or Alexander was firm, or because England's policy was astute or the Duke of Oldenburg wronged.
As duke of Chartres he opposed the plans of Maupeou in 1771, and was promptly exiled to his country estate of Villers-Cotterets (Aisne).
Albert's descendants ruled over a united Bavaria, until the death of Duke Maximilian III.
In 1676 the duke of Crequy seized it in the name of Louis XIV., who in 1678 gave it to Godefroy Marie de La Tour d'Auvergne, whose descendants continued in possession till 1795.
Louis' son, Otto the Illustrious (1206-1253), undertook the government of the Palatinate in 1228, and became duke of Bavaria in 1231.
In order to undertake the crusade Godfrey sold the castle of Bouillon to the prince bishop of Liege, and the title of duke of Bouillon remained the appendage of the bishopric till 1678, or for 580 years.
In 1534 Duke Ulrich called him to Wurttemberg in aid of the reformation there, as well as for the reconstitution of the university of Tubingen, which he carried out in concert with Ambrosius Blarer of Constanz.
When Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, was placed under the imperial ban in 1180, Otto's services were rewarded by the investiture of the dukedom of Bavaria at Altenburg.
With a pleasant smile Berg related how the Grand Duke had ridden up to him in a violent passion, shouting: "Arnauts!"
"But that's the Grand Duke, and I want the commander-in-chief or the Emperor," said Rostov, and was about to spur his horse.
Our sovereign alone has protested against the seizure of the Duke of Oldenburg's territory, and even...
"The Duke of Oldenburg bears his misfortunes with admirable strength of character and resignation," remarked Boris, joining in respectfully.
In 1591 he obtained a dispensation from the vows of the order of Malta, and married Charlotte, daughter of Henry, Marshal d'Amville, afterwards duke of Montmorency.
LOUIS PHILIPPE JOSEPH ORLEANS, DUKE OF (1747-1793), called Philippe Egalite, son of Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, and of Louise Henriette of Bourbon-Conti, was born at St Cloud on the 13th of April 1747.
The university of Oxford conferred on him the honorary degree of D.C.L.; and in the following year he was sworn of the privy council, and took a prominent part in the reception given to the duke of Wellington and the allied sovereigns.
These were reunited under Albert IV., duke of Bavaria-Munich (1447-1508) and the upper Palatinate was added to them in 1628.
Heinrich Wilhelm August, Freiherr von Gagern (1799-1880), the third son, was born at Bayreuth on the 20th of August 1 799, educated at the military academy at Munich, and, as an officer in the service of the duke of Nassau, fought at Waterloo.
In the centre of the Schlossplatz is the lofty jubilee column, erected in 1841 in memory of the king of Wurttemberg, William I., and in the courtyard of the old palace is a bronze equestrian statue of Duke Eberhard the Bearded.
The city contains a fine statue of Schiller, designed by Thorvaldsen; a bronze statue of Christopher, duke of Wurttemberg; a monument to the emperor William I.; an equestrian statue of King William I.
The duke of Dorset's reappointment to the lord-lieutenancy in 1751, with his son Lord George Sackville as secretary of state for Ireland, strengthened the primate's position and enabled him to triumph over the popular party on the constitutional question as to the right of the Irish House of Commons to dispose of surplus Irish revenue, which the government maintained was the property of the Crown.
These two, afterwards joined by the primate's old rival Lord Shannon, and usually supported by the earl of Kildare, regained control of affairs in 1758, during the viceroyalty of the duke of Bedford.
The true home of this deer has never been ascertained, and probably never will be; all the few known specimens now living being kept in confinement - the great majority in the duke of Bedford's park at Woburn, Bedfordshire.
In May 1410 he went again on an embassy to France; on the 11th of September 1411 he headed a mission to discuss Henry V.'s marriage with a daughter of the duke of Burgundy; and he was again there in November.
And the souls of Henry V., Thomas, duke of Clarence, and all the dukes, earls, barons, knights, squires and other nobles and subjects of our father who during the time and in the service of our father and ourselves ended their lives in the wars of the kingdom of France, and for the souls of all the faithful departed."
The support of Albert duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, and of Louis II.
Count palatine of the Rhine and duke of upper Bavaria, had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Rudolph's daughters; so that Ottakar II.
Duke of lower Bavaria from his side, Rudolph compelled the Bohemian king to cede the four provinces in November 1276.
Duke of Burgundy.
An ardent opponent of Catholic Emancipation, he delivered in 1807 a speech on the subject which helped to give the deathblow to the Grenville administration, upon which he became chancellor of the exchequer under the duke of Portland, whom in 1809 he succeeded in the premiership. Notwithstanding that he had the assistance in the cabinet of no statesman of the first rank, he succeeded in retaining office till he was shot by a man named Bellingham, a bankrupt with a grievance, who had vainly applied to him for redress, in the lobby of the House of Commons on the 11th of May 1812.
On being liberated he returned to Tuscany, and the grand duke Leopold II, knowing that he was popular with the masses, sent him to Leghorn to quell the disturbances.
He accepted, and on the Toth of January 1849, induced the grand duke to establish a national constituent assembly.
Otto was descended from Luitpold, duke of Bavaria and margrave of Carinthia, who was killed in 907 fighting the Hungarians.
Before the meeting of the notables in 1787 he had succeeded his father as duke of Orleans, and showed his liberal ideas, which were largely learnt in England, so boldly that he was believed to be aiming at becoming constitutional king of France.
In the summer of 1792 he was present for a short time with the army of the north, with his two sons, the duke of Chartres and the duke of Montpensier, but had returned to Paris before the 10th of August.
The execution of Philippe Egalite made the friend of Dumouriez, who was living in exile, duke of Orleans.
When in November the duke of York encamped near Dartford, Waynflete with three others was sent from the king's camp at Blackheath to propose terms, which were accepted.
On the death of the chancellor, John Kemp, archbishop of Canterbury, during the sitting of parliament, presided over by the duke of York, commissioners, headed by Waynflete, were sent to Henry, to ask him to name a new chancellor, apparently intending that Waynflete should be named.
On the 22nd of October 1715 Alexius' consort, the princess Charlotte, died, after giving birth to a son, the grand-duke Peter, afterwards Peter II.
On the 18th of February a "confession" was extorted from Alexius which implicated most of his friends, and he then publicly renounced the succession to the throne in favour of the baby grand-duke Peter Petrovich.