It is a silver-white ductile metal (of specific gravity 2.54) which melts at 8000.
In view of the fact that the presence of 1% of carbon implies that 15% of the soft ductile ferrite is replaced by the glass-hard cementite, it is not surprising that even a little carbon influences the properties of the metal so profoundly.
According to Chenevix, the alloy composed of equal parts of the two metals is grey, is less ductile than its constituent metals and has the specific gravity i i.
By the application of a pointed iron hook, while the glass is still ductile, the parallel coils can be distorted into bends, loops or zigzags.
This is only possible with malleable and ductile metals and alloys.
There are many metals and alloys which are malleable and ductile, and also readily fused and cast.
Broadly the malleable and ductile metals and alloys show a fibrous character when ruptured, the fusible ones a crystalline fracture.
At ordinary temperatures tin proves fairly ductile under the hammer, and its ductility seems to increase as the temperature rises up to about 100° C. At some temperature near its fusing point it becomes brittle, and still more brittle from - 14° C. downwards.
It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.
The pure metal is silver-white in colour, is very ductile, and becomes remarkably hard when hammered, a diamond drill making little impression upon it.
For ductile iron or mild steel it may be taken as 1.5.
Thus, though sudden cooling has very little effect on steel of o io% of carbon, it changes that of 1.50% from a somewhat ductile body to one harder and more brittle than glass.
Thanks to the glass-hardness of this face, the projectile is arrested so abruptly that it is shattered, and its energy is delivered piecemeal by its fragments; but as the face is integrally united with the unhardened, ductile and slightly yielding interior and back, the plate, even if it is locally bent backwards somewhat by the blow, neither cracks nor flakes.
Second, though the brittleness should be lessened somewhat by the decrease in the extent to which the continuity of the strong matrix is broken up by the graphite skeleton, yet this effect is outweighed greatly by that of the rapid substitution in the matrix of the brittle cementite for the' very ductile copper-like ferrite, so that the brittleness increases continuously (RS), from that of the very grey graphitic cast irons, which, like that of soapstone, is so slight that the metal can endure severe shock and even indentation without breaking, to that of the pure white cast iron which is about as brittle as porcelain.
The ductile metals and alloys also extend from Jo to 30 with reduction of area before they fracture, the crystalline ones snap shortly without warning.
When diluted down to 4.8%, it assumes the colour and fusibility of bronze, but, unlike it, is tenacious and ductile like iron.
According to some authorities, pure zinc always yields ductile ingots.
- Clarke states that the alloy of equal parts of the two metals is ductile, and has almost the colour of gold.
- Gold alloyed with 4th or 1th of rhodium is, according to Wollaston,very ductile,infusible and of the colour of gold.
It is extremely magnetic and almost non-magnetic; as brittle as glass and almost as pliable and ductile as copper; extremely springy, and springless and dead; wonderfully strong, and 1 The word " iron " was in 0.
It is the common, very magnetic form of iron, in itself ductile but relatively soft and weak, as we know it in wrought iron and mild or low-carbon steel.
That to which the hardened steel is thus reheated, the more is the molecular rigidity relaxed, the farther on does the transformation go, and the softer does the steel become; so that, if the reheating reaches a dullred heat, the transformation from austenite into ferrite and cementite completes itself slowly, and when now cooled the steel is as soft and ductile as if it had never been hardened.
Returns spontaneously to its fine-grained ductile state (cooling past Ara does not have this effect); or by breaking up the coarse grains by mechanical distortion, e.g.
It is the most malleable and ductile of all metals with the exception of gold: one gramme can be drawn out into a wire 180 metres long, and the leaf can be beaten out to a thickness of 0.0002 5 mm.; traces of arsenic, antimony, bismuth and lead, however, make it brittle.
It is the most tenacious of all the ductile metals at ordinary temperatures with the exception of cobalt and nickel; it becomes brittle, however, at the temperature of liquid air.
If zinc be cast into a mould at a red heat, the ingot produced is laminar and brittle; if cast at just the fusing-point, it is granular and sufficiently ductile to be rolled into sheet at the ordinary temperature.
It is also extremely ductile; a single grain may be drawn into a wire 500 ft.
It is the third most malleable and sixth most ductile metal, yielding sheets 0.000025 in.