The ducal dignity rarely passed out of a circle of specially old and distinguished families.
The kingly power in Poland, like the ducal power at Venice, had been so narrowed that Poland, though she still kept a king, called herself a republic no less than Venice.
At Z is the treasury of St Mark, which was originally one of the towers belonging to the old ducal palace; E, site of old houses; G, clocktower; H, old palace of procurators; J, old library; M, two columns; N, Ponte della Paglia; 0, Bridge of Sighs; W, Giants' Staircase; X, sacristy of St Mark; Y, Piazzetta.
During the earlier years of the republic the ducal palace was frequently destroyed and rebuilt.
The collegiate church (Stiftskirche) dates from about 1340, and contains a number of fine ducal monuments.
Curiously enough the cottage, a stone building, built by the same duke for Jean Jacques Rousseau, still stands in the park, while the ducal residence was burnt down by the sans-culottes.
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
The government is carried on by a ministry of five, with departments for the ducal house and foreign affairs, home affairs, justice, education and public worship and finance.
The nobility and clergy were on the side of the ducal authority; its opponents were the municipalities, especially those of Flanders.
He there received the imperial crown, and summoned the Italian princes for a settlement of all disputed claims. Francesco Sforza, the last and childless heir of the ducal house, was left in Milan till his death, which happened in 1535.
Not only the Gonzagas, but several other ancient ducal families, died out about the date which we have reached.
Count Serristori, the grand-ducal comiiissioner, arrived in Florence on the 4th of May 1849; the -iational guard was disbanded; and on the 25th, the Austrians inder dAspre entered Florence.
The eldest of the cadet branches of the ducal house has its origin in William (c. 1510-1573), eldest son of the victor of Flodden by his second marriage.
The ducal castle is now occupied by the chief court of the Palatinate.
At the ducal printing office at Zweibriicken the fine edition of the classics known as the Bipontine Editions was published (1 799 sqq.).
There are a Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, a pilgrimage chapel, dating from 1100, a ducal chateau, built by a son of the elector John George about the end of the 16th century (now utilized as government offices), classical, technical and commercial schools and a hospital.
The history of Pomerania, as distinct from that of Pomerellen, consists mainly of an almost endless succession of divisions of territory among the different lines of the ducal house, and of numerous expansions and contractions of territory through constant hostilities with the elector of Brandenburg, who claimed to be the immediate feudal superior of Pomerania, and with other neighbouring rulers.
BUCCLEUCH The substantial origin of the ducal house of the Scotts of Buccleuch dates back to the large grants of lands in Scotland to Sir Walter Scott of Kirkurd and Buccleuch, a border chief, by James in consequence of the fall of the 8th earl of Douglas (1452); but the family traced their descent back to a Sir Richard le Scott (1249-1285).
In some cases, however, as for example in the ducal palace itself, if the clay appeared sufficiently firm, the piles were dispensed with and the foundations went up directly from the oak platform which rested immediately on the clay.
This church was burned in 976 along with the ducal palace in the insurrection against the Doge Candiano IV.
The dates of the various parts of the existing ducal palace are indicated on the plan; the rebuilding was carried on in the following order, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V.
Taken as a whole, after the ducal palace this is the noblest effect of all in Venice."
Other artists, of whom we know nothing else, such as Antonio Busetto, Antonio Foscolo, Gasparino Rosso, Giacomo da Como, Marco da Legno and others, were called in to help in evolving this masterpiece of decorated architecture, affording us an example of the way in which the ducal palace and other monuments of Venice grew out of the collaboration of numerous nameless artists.
We find it retaining some traces of Byzantine influence in the decorated surfaces of applied marbles, and in the roundels of porphyry and verd antique, while it also retained certain characteristics of Gothic, as, for instance, in the pointed arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the ducal palace designed by Antonio Rizzo (1499).
- Venetian sculpture is for the most part ancillary to architecture; for example, Antonio Rizzo's "Adam" and "Eve" (1464), which face the giants'-staircase in the ducal palace, are parts of the decorative scheme; Sansovino's splendid monument to Tomaso Rangone is an essential feature of the facade of San Giuliano.
By the side of the sea in the piazzetta, on to which the west facade of the ducal palace faces, stand two ancient columns of Egyptian granite, one red and the other grey.
They contain the voluminous and invaluable records of the Venetian republic, diplomatic, judicial, commercial, notarial, &c. Under the republic the various departments of state stored their records in various buildings, at the ducal palace, at the Scuola di San Teodoro, at the Camerlenghi.
Contemporaneously with the restoration of the southern facade of St Mark's, the restoration of the colonnade of the ducal palace towards the Piazzetta and the Mole was undertaken at a cost of £23,000.
For the same reason the Biblioteca Marciana with its 350,000 volumes was moved to the Old Mint, opposite the ducal palace.
Further, two ducal councillors were appointed to assist the doge, and he was compelled, not merely permitted, to seek the advice of the more prominent citizens at moments of crisis.
Moreover, still further tq limit the power of the doge, the number of ducal councillors was raised from two to six.
In 1198, on the election of Enrico Dandolo, the aristocracy carried their policy one step farther, and by the promissione ducale, or coronation oath, which every doge was required to swear, they acquired a powerful weapon for the suppression of all that remained of ancient ducal authority.
In 1032 Robert, the second son of Robert the Pious, king of the Franks, and grandson of Hugh Capet, founded the first ducal house, which ruled until 1361.
For two years the duchy was in the hands of the crown, but in 1363, the second ducal house, also Capetian, was founded by Philip the Bold, son of John II., king of France.
The upper consists of princes of the grand-ducal family, heads of mediatized houses, the head of the Roman Catholic and the superintendent of the Protestant church, the chancellor of the university, two elected representatives of the land-owning nobility, and twelve members nominated by the grand duke.
He was at first pantler, then carver, titles which are misleading as to the nature of his services, which were those of a diplomatist; and in 1457 he became a member of the ducal council.
The ducal palace, standing in extensive grounds, contains a collection of historical curiosities and a gallery of pictures, which includes works by Cimabue, Lippi,Rubens,Titian and Van Dyck.
In the environs are the ducal villas of Georgium and Luisium, the gardens of which, as well as those of the neighbouring town of Worlitz, are much admired.
The counts of Cleves, Schwarzburg, Cilli and Savoy; they were entitled to the ducal coronet.
In that year the first plot against the Viscontian rule, hatched by the twelve and the Salimbeni and fomented by the Florentines, was violently repressed, and caused the twelve to be again driven from office; but in the following year a special balia, created in consequence of that riot, annulled the ducal suzerainty and restored the liberties of Siena.
At the coronation (19th May) he was made grand-chamberlain, a count of the empire, on which occasion he is said to have adopted the arms of the French ducal house of Biron, and was presented with an estate at Wenden with 50,000 crowns a year.
Among his other works may be mentioned the Manuel d'iconographic chretienne grecque et latine (1845), the Iconographie des chapiteaux du palais ducal de Venise (1857), and the Manuel des objets de bronze et d'orfevrerie (1859).
Its ancient castle is picturesquely situated on a lofty porphyry rock, and is memorable as the place from which, in 1455, Kunz von Kaufungen carried off the young princes Albert and Ernest, the founders of the present royal and ducal families of Saxony.
It is first recorded as a town in 127 4, and in the 1 4 th century was the seat of the princes of Grubenhagen, a branch of the ducal house of Brunswick.
The grand-ducal government of the Seekreis was dissolved, and Hecker gradually gained reinforcements.
OLEG (?-912), prince of Kiev, succeeded Rurik, as being the eldest member of the ducal family, in the principality of Great Novgorod, the first Russian metropolis.
(Piero Francesco Orsini), pope from 1724 to 1730, at first styled Benedict XIV., was born on the 2nd of February 1649, of the ducal family of Orsini-Gravina.
The executive consists of four departments of state - those of the interior, of foreign affairs and of the grand-ducal house, of fina-nce, and of justice, ecclesiastical affairs and education.
The union of the duchy with the crown in 1477 deprived Dijon of the splendour of the ducal court; but to cbunterbalance this loss it was made the capital of the province and seat of a parlement.
Lessing was ducal librarian here, and the old library building, designed in 1723 in imitation of the Pantheon at Rome, contains a marble statue of him.
The ducal burial-vault is in the church of St Mary.
The town passed wholly into the possession of the Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel family in 1671, and for nearly one hundred years enjoyed the distinction of being the ducal capital.
In 1754, however, Duke Charles transferred the ducal residence to Brunswick.
A single battalion (150) of volunteers composes the grand-ducal army.
It joined the Hanseatic League, and was later the residence of the branch of the ducal house, which received the title of elector of Hanover and ascended the British throne in the person of George I.
Town after town surrendered: in 1141, Verneuil, Nonancourt, Lisieux, Falaise; in 1142, Mortain, Saint-Hilaire, Pontorson; in 1143, Avranches, Saint-Lo, Cerences, Coutances, Cherbourg; in the beginning of 1144 he entered Rouen, and on the 19th of January received the ducal crown in its cathedral.
Finally, in the cemetery is the grand ducal family vault, in which Goethe and Schiller also lie, side by side.
Among the other prominent buildings in Weimar are the Griines Schloss (18th century), containing a library of 200,000 volumes and a valuable collection of portraits, busts and literary and other curiosities; the old ducal dower-house (Wittumspalais); the museum, built in1863-1868in the Renaissance style with some old masters and Preller's famous mural paintings illustrating the Odyssey.
Among the educational establishments are a gymnasium, and Realschule, the Sophienstift (a large school for girls of the better class, founded by the grand-duchess Sophia), the grand-ducal school of art, geographical institutes, a technical school, commercial school, music school, teachers' seminaries, and deaf and dumb and blind asylums. An English church was opened in 1899.
In length, leads southwards from the town to the grand-ducal château of Belvedere, in the gardens of which the open-air theatre, used in Goethe's day, still exists.