Potassium carbonate, K 2 CO 3, popularly known as "potashes," was originally obtained in countries where wood was cheap by lixiviating wood ashes in wooden tubs, evaporating the solution to dryness in iron pots and calcining the residue; in more recent practice the calcination is carried out in reverberatory furnaces.
Crude potash is used for the manufacture of glass, and, after being causticized, for the making of soft soap. For many other purposes it must be refined, which is done by treating the crude product with the minimum of cold water required to dissolve the carbonate, removing the undissolved part (which consists chiefly of sulphate), and evaporating the clear liquor to dryness in an iron pan.
The charge was distilled almost to dryness, though the operation was not carried far enough to cause the residue to " coke."
From November to April there are usually constant dryness, a clear sky, and considerable, though by no means oppressive, heat.
Schimperl made a distinct advance when he distinguished between physical and physiological dryness or wetness of the soil.
His dryness is associated with a fund of dry humour exceedingly effective in its proper place, as in The Book Hunter.
Minnesota has the characteristic climate of the North Central group of states, with a low mean annual temperature, a notably rarefied atmosphere that results in an almost complete absence of damp foggy weather, and an unusual dryness which during the rather long winters considerably neutralizes the excessive cold.
Nevertheless owing to the dryness of the climate, the unclouded sun fully warms the earth during the long summer days in those high latitudes, and gives a short period of warm and even hot weather in the immediate neighbourhood of the pole of cold.
In the hill tracts and the marshy depression of the Ob they are unbroken, except by the bald summits of the loftier mountains (goltsy); they have the aspect of agreeable bosquets in the Baraba steppe, and they are thinly scattered through south-eastern Transbaikalia, where the dryness of the Gobi steppe makes its influence appreciably felt.
Though in great part within the tropics, the heat is counteracted by the dryness of the air.
As dryness is favourable to an increase of heat, such walls should be either built hollow or packed behind to the thickness of 3 or 4 ft.
With closed stoves much less heat is wasted, and consequ;ntly less fuel is burned, than with open grates, but they often cause an unpleasant sensation of dryness in the air, and the products of combustion also escape to some extent, rendering this method of heating not only unpleasant but sometimes even dangerous.
The I heart-wood ceases to be of any use to the tree except as a support, but owing to its dryness and hardness it alone is of much use for industrial purposes.
All soils which are physically dry are also physiologically dry; and hence only the physiological dryness or wetness of soils need be considered in ecology.
Thus, associ- 1~e] ions of Agropyrum (Triticum) junceum, of Carex arenaria, of ~ ~nmophila (Psamma) arenaria, and of other plants occur on sa rid dunes: the associations are related by the general identity ph the habitat conditions, namely, the physiological dryness f d the loose soil; but they are separated by differences in f~1
With regard to the occurrence of plants, such as Juncus effusus, which possess xerophytic characters and yet live in situations which are not ordinarily of marked physiological dryness, it should be remembered that such habitats are liable to occasional physical drought; and a plant must eventually succumb if it is not adapted to the extreme conditions of its habitat.
It is sometimes said that lime acts as a poison on some plants and not on others, and sometimes that it is the physiological dryness of calcareous soils that is the important factor.
On reaching the Tibetan plateau, with the increased dryness the flora assumes many features of the Siberian type.
The Mugan steppe is, however, in spite of its dryness, a more fertile region in virtue of the irrigation practised; but the Kura has excavated its bed too deeply to admit of that being done along its course.
The climate of Bellary is characterized by extreme dryness, due to the passing of the air over a great extent of heated plains, and it has a smaller rainfall than any other district in south India.
Any change which a substance may chance to undergo was simply due to the discarding or taking up of some proportion of the primary " elements " or qualities: of these coverings " water," " air," " earth " and " fire " were regarded as clinging most tenaciously to the essence, while " cold," " heat," " moistness " and " dryness " were more easily cast aside or assumed.
In consequence of the elevation of the plateau and the dryness of the air, the heat is less oppressive than is indicated by the temperatures recorded.
Owing to the extreme dryness of the atmosphere and the fact that there is always a breeze, usually from the N.W., this heat is felt much less than a greatly lower temperature in a more humid atmosphere.
Internally lead has an astringent action on the mucous membranes, causing a sensation of dryness; the dilute solution of the subacetate forms an effective gargle in tonsillitis.
Chiefly owing to the dryness of climate, its physical characteristics are similar to those of Mongolia proper, except that the altitude of the plains is much lower.
They are repelled by the dryness of much of the matter, the unsuitableness of many of the topics discussed for poetic treatment, the arbitrary assumption of premises, the entire failure to establish the connexion between the concrete phenomena which the author professes to explain and these assumptions, and the erroneousness of many of the doctrines which are stated with dogmatic confidence.
On other estates the second sugars, or sugars produced from boiling molasses alone, are not purged to dryness, but when sufficiently separated from their mother-liquor are mixed with the defecated juice, thereby increasing its saccharine richness, and after being converted into syrup in the usual manner are treated in the vacuum pan as first sugars, which in fact they really are.
The sugar thus produced, by constant stirring and evaporation almost to dryness, forms a species of small-grained concrete.
In the laboratory absolute soil dryness is as distinctly antagonistic to the vitality of the diphtheria bacillus as soil dampness is favourable.
For warmth, for dryness, for absence of fog, and for facility of walking after rain, just when the air is at its purest and its best, there is nothing equal to gravel; but when gravel has been rendered foul by infiltration with organic matters it may easily become a very hotbed of disease.
A solution of zinc chloride is easily produced from the metal and hydrochloric acid; it cannot be evaporated to dryness without considerable decomposition of the hydrated salt into oxychloride and hydrochloric acid, but it may be crystallized as ZnC1 2 H 2 O.
If the sulphuric acid solution be evaporated to dryness the residue, after cooling, dissolves in cold water.
Evaporating to dryness hydrochloric acid is given off as the temperature is raised to expel the last of the water, and Tornoe found that carbonic acid was also liberated and that the loss of both acids was very variable.
The characters of softness or hardness, dryness or moisture, &c., are taken account of in these classifications.
The Tableau economique, though on account of its dryness and abstract form it met with little general favour, may be considered the principal manifesto of the school.
The season, however, on account of the dryness of the climate, is not so harsh as the low temperatures would seem to indicate.
A preparation sufficing for most purposes is obtained by digesting the commercial article in absolute alcohol, decanting and evaporating the solution to dryness and fusing in silver vessels.
The liquors are evaporated to dryness and the residue is ignited to obtain a very impure carbonate, which is purified by methods founded on the different solubilities of the several components.
The filtrate is evaporated to dryness (in iron or platinum vessels) and the residue fully dehydrated by gentle ignition.
The increasing dryness of the land is partly, perhaps largely, attributable to the cutting down of timber trees both by natives and by whites, and to the custom of annually burning the grass, which is destructive to young wood.
A later method consists in boiling the weed with sodium carbonate; the liquid is filtered and hydrochloric acid added to the filtrate, when alginic acid is precipitated; this is also filtered off, the filtrate neutralized by caustic soda, and the whole evaporated to dryness and carbonized, the residue obtained being known as kelp substitute.
The exigencies of competition prompted the discovery that if yarn were sold by weight fresh from the spindle its comparative dryness made such early sale less profitable than if it were allowed to "condition."
The central lake region, extending from the Kuen-lun to the Himalaya, is also characterized by extreme dryness in autumn, winter and spring, with an abundance of rain in summer, whilst the eastern mountain region, extending to China south of the Dang la (which, with an altitude of about 20,000 ft., stretches from 90° to 97° E.
Let us now trace the behaviour of a solution of ferric chloride which is evaporated to dryness at a constant temperature of 31 °.
Alumina dissolves readily enough in aqueous hydrochloric acid to yield a solution of the chloride, but neither this solution, nor that containing sodium chloride, can be evaporated to dryness without decomposition.
Their compact, moss-like growth and general structural peculiarities are not an expression of mutual affinity, but are in adaptation to the combined cold and dryness of their habitat.
In ordinary cases the potting soil should be just so far removed from dryness that when a handful is gently pressed it may hang together, but may lose its cohesion when dropped.
The ripening process must be brought about by free exposure to light, and by the application of a little extra heat with dryness, if the season should be unfavourable; and both roots and tops must submit to a limitation of their water supply.
Hot desert conditions are primarily found along the tropical belts of high atmospheric pressure in which the conditions of warmth and dryness are most fully realized, and on their equatorial sides, but the zonal arrangement is considerably modified in some regions by the monsoonal influence of elevated land.
To avoid dryness and prolixity he condensed quotations, and occasionally employed the Thucydidean method of abridgment or representation in place of fact catalogues.
This is distilled to dryness and the distillate repeatedly recrystallized from cymene.
It follows from the above that a patient who is definitely under the influence of atropine will display rapid pulse, dilated pupils, a dry skin and a sense of discomfort, due to dryness of the mouth and throat.
The mixed chlorides are boiled down to dryness with sulphuric acid to convert them into sulphates, which are then separated by boiling water, which dissolves only the thallium salt.
It may be obtained from urine by evaporating to dryness on the water bath, taking up the residue in absolute alcohol and evaporating the alcoholic solution to dryness again.
In the southern and early-settled parts of the state the mean temperature is about 64°, but in the more northern portions the heat is excessive, though the dryness of the atmosphere makes it preferable to moist tropical climates.
The vast sandy wastes mainly contribute to the dryness of the winds on the Great Hungarian Alfold.
The determination of salinity was formerly carried out by evaporating a weighed quantity of sea-water to dryness and weighing the residue.
In relation to the latter theory, it is pointed out that some markedly calcicole species occur on sand dunes; but this may be due to the lime which is frequently present in dune sand as well as to the physical dryness of the soil.
It is sometimes maintained, for example, by Schimper, that their xerophytic characters are related to the physiological dryness of the habitat: this, however, is denied by others who maintain (Clements, 1905: 127) that the xerophytism is due to the persistence of ancestral structures.