In 1771 Thomas Jefferson described a " burning spring " in the Kanawha Valley, and when wells were drilled for salt brine near Charleston petroleum and natural gas were found here before there was any drilling for oil in Pennsylvania.
If Peter really thought of taking the administration into his own hands, he very soon abandoned the idea and returned to the irregular suburban life he had led during his half- Peter the sister's regency - associating with foreigners who could Great, teach him the mechanical arts of the West, drilling 1689- troops, building and sailing boats, forming projects 1725.
The leading features of Tull's husbandry are his practice of laying the land into narrow ridges of 5 or 6 ft., and upon the middle of these drilling one, two, or three rows, distant from one another about 7 in.
In their cultivation he adopted Tull's practice of drilling and horse-hoeing, and he was also the founder of the Norfolk or four-course system, the first of those rotations which dispense with the necessity of a summer-fallow and provide winter-keep for live-stock (see below, Rotation of Crops).
After drilling had been carried to a depth of 69 feet, on the 28th of August 1859, the tools suddenly dropped into a crevice, and on the following day the well was found to have " struck oil."
It is evident that accurate knowledge of the character and structure of the rock-formations in petroliferous territories is of the greatest importance in enabling the expert to select favourable sites for drilling operations; hence on well-conducted petroleumproperties it is now customary to note the character and thickness of the strata perforated by the drill, so that a complete section may be prepared from the recorded data.
United The present method of drilling has been evolved from States.
The drilling of petroleum wells is carried on by individuals or companies, either on lands owned by them, or on properties whose owners grant leases, usually on condition that a certain number of wells shall be sunk within a stated period, and that a portion of the oil obtained (usually from one-tenth to one-fourth) shall be appropriated as royalty to the lessor.
For drilling the deeper wells, the derrick, on account of the length of the " string " of drilling tools, is usually at least 7 o ft.
The band-wheel communicates motion to the walking-beam, while drilling is in progress, through the crank and a connectingrod known as the pitman; to the bull-wheels, while the tools are being raised, by the bull-rope; and to the sand-pump reel, by a friction pulley, while the sand-pump is being used.
The drilling tools are suspended by an untarred manila rope, 2 in.
The string of drilling tools consists of two Drilling parts separated by an appliance known as the jars.
The operation of drilling is frequently interrupted by the occurrence of an accident, which necessitates the use of fishing tools.
In readiness for a fracture of the drilling tools or of the cable, special appliances known as fishing tools are provided.
The drilling of a well is commonly carried out under contract, the producer erecting the derrick and providing the engine and boiler while the drilling contractor finds the tools, and is Drill ing the responsible for accidents or failure to complete the well.
The drilling " crew " consists of two drillers Wel l .
As the water is shut off before the portion of the well below the water-bearing strata is bored the remainder of the drilling is conducted with only sufficient water in the well to admit of sand-pumping.
The rotary system of drilling which is in general use in the oilfields of the coastal plain of Texas is a modification of that invented Rotary by Fauvelle in 1845, and used in the early years of the R .
The principle of this system consists essentially in the use of rotating hollow drilling rods or casing, to which is attached the drilling-bit and through which a continuous stream of water, under a pressure of 40 to loo lb.
On the completion of drilling, or when the production is found to decrease, it is usual to torpedo the well to increase the flow.
On account of the small Drilling in depth of the wells, and the tenacious nature of the Canada.
Principal strata bored through, the Canadian method of drilling differs from the Pennsylvanian or American system in the following particulars: 1.
The use of a lighter set of drilling tools.
Although petroleum wells in Russia have not the depth of many of those in the United States, the disturbed character of the strata, with consequent liability to caving, and the occurrence of hard concretions, render drilling a lengthy and expensive Drilling in operation.
The drilling of wells of large size requires the use of heavy tools and of very strong appliances generally.
This consists in the use of an expanding reamer by means of which Drilling in the well may be drilled to a diameter admitting of the Galicia.
The outward set of teeth drill the hole large enough to permit the drilling apparatus to descend freely, and the teeth set inwardly pare down the core to such a diameter as will admit of the body of the cutter passing over it without seizing.
In conclusion it may be stated that the two systems of drilling for petroleum with which by far the largest amount of work has been, and is being done, are the American or rope Comparison system, and the Canadian or rod system.
At this period the supply of the raw material was insufficient to admit of any important development in the industry, and before the drilling of artesian wells for petroleum was initiated by Drake the " coal-oil " or shale-oil industry had assumed considerable proportions in the United States.
After a month's vigorous drilling Hicks led 5000 of his men against an equal force of dervishes in Sennar, whom he defeated, and cleared the country between the towns of Sennar and Khartum of rebels.
The increased mortality seems to be due to the general tendency toward forced speed in development work, which is secured by rapid drilling, and by an increase in the number of machine drills used in a single working-place.
In the metal mines of Cornwall and Devon special rules are now in force requiring the use of water in drilling, and other precautions, to lessen this danger from dust.
Among, the city's manufactures are refined oil, Portland cement, vitrified brick and tile, glass, asphalt, ice, cigars, drilling machinery, and flour.
The horse-drawn hoe is steered by means of handles in the rear, but its successful working depends on accurate drilling of the seed, because unless the rows are parallel the roots of the plants are liable to be cut and the foliage injured.
It was the year before the rebellion of 1837; the condition of the whole country was very unsettled; and it seemed well-nigh impossible to reconcile differences arising from racial and political antagonisms. During the rebellion young Macdonald volunteered for active service, but his military career never went farther than drilling and marching.
Circular nodal lines unaccompanied by intersecting lines cannot be produced in the manner described; but may be got either by drilling a small hole through the centre, and drawing a horse-hair along its edge to bring out the note, or by attaching a long thin elastic rod to the centre of the plate, at right angles to it, holding the rod by the.
In 1630 the Dutch West India Company granted the island to Michael Pauw as a part of his patroonship of Pavonia, and it was bought at this time from the Indians for "some duffels, kettles, axes, hoes, wampum, drilling awls, jew's harps, and divers other small wares"; but before Pauw had established a settlement upon it he sold his title back to the company.
1671) had proposed to teach Latin by drilling his The Greek Testa= went.
After the outbreak of the War of Independence he devoted himself chiefly to the enlisting and drilling of troops, and was chosen major of a regiment.
So long as he could indulge freely in his favourite pastimes - shipbuilding, ship-sailing, drilling and sham fights - he was quite content that others should rule in his name.
In drilling for some of the first oil wells gas escaped, and in a few instances this was used as a fuel for generating steam in the boilers of the drilling-engines.
A little later, about 1868, successful experiments were made with gas as a manufacturing fuel, and in 1872 the gas industry was fairly well established near Titusville by drilling a well and piping the gas for consumption both as fuel and light.
This park was once a national drilling ground, which was taken over by the municipality with a view to erecting upon it a new residential quarter, rendered necessary by the phenomenal growth of the city during the last twenty-five years of the 19th century.
Diamonds are now employed not only for faceting precious stones, but also for cutting and drilling glass, porcelain, &c,; for fine engraving such as scales; in dentistry for drilling; as a turning tool for electric-light carbons, hard rubber, &c.; and occasionally for finishing accurate turning work such as the axle of a transit instrument.
Rock drilling is the most important industrial application; and for this, owing to its freedom from cleavage, the carbonado is more highly prized than diamond; it is broken into fragments about 3 carats in weight; and in 1905 the value of carbonado was no less than from £10 to £14 a carat.
A favorite way of indicating the eyes was by drilling two holes and inserting a white shell bead n each.
There had been some drilling in Clark county in 1865, and in 1904 this field was again worked at Westfield.
Nutand bolt-making machinery, both for forging and screw cutting, operates automatically, and drilling machinery is highly specialized.
The time of drilling was reduced to 240 days for the infantry, to 300 days for the navy, while for the cavalry and artillery the time fixed was 365 days.