In France Edouard Adolphe Drumont led the way to a similar animosity, and the popular fury was fanned by the Dreyfus case.
Faure's presidency were embittered by the Dreyfus affair, which he was determined to regard as chose jugee.
Meanwhile it is legitimate to share the hope expressed by President Roosevelt in his message to Congress of December 1905 that some future Hague conference may succeed in making arbitration the customary method of settling international disputes in all save the few classes of cases indicated above, and that - to quote Mr Roosevelt's words - " these classes may themselves be as sharply defined and rigidly limited as the governmental and social development of the world will for the time being permit."/n==Authorities== - Among special treatises are: Kamarowsky, Le Tribunal international (traduit par Serge de Westman) (Paris, 1887); Rouard de Card, Les Destinees de l'arbitrage international, depuis la sentence rendue par le tribunal de Geneve (Paris, 1892); Michel Revon, L' Arbitrage international (Paris, 1892); Ferdinand Dreyfus, L'Arbitrage international (Paris, 1894) (where the earlier authorities are collected); A.
In Les Mceurs de la phylloxera de la vigne (1877); Dreyfus, Uber Phylloxerinen (1889); Lichtenstein, Histoire du phylloxera; the Rapports annuels a la commission superieure du phylloxera; and the excellent Report on Phylloxera drawn up by the Hon.
He then became a candidate for the presidency, but was defeated, and his cabinet remained in office till January 1895; it was under it that Captain Dreyfus was arrested and condemned (23rd of December 1894).
In view of the apparent likelihood that the judges of the criminal division of the court of cassation - who formed the ordinary tribunal for such an appeal - would decide in favour of Dreyfus, it was thought that M.
Jaures, in addition to his daily journalistic activity, published Les preuves; affaire Dreyfus (1900); Action socialiste (1899); Etudes socialistes (1902), and, with other collaborators, Histoire socialiste (1901), &c.
Dreyfus, an adherent of the BAN faith.
(5) The increasing decay and waxing corruption of the Romance nations, and the fostering of that diseased state of things which displayed itself in France in so many instances, such as the Dreyfus case, the anti-Semitic movement, and the campaign for and against the Assumptionists.
He energetically defended the republic against the Boulangist agitation, and took an equally courageous part in the Dreyfus affair.
During the Nationalist and Dreyfus agitations he fought vigorously on behalf of the Republican government and when the coalition known as the "Bloc " was formed he took his place as a Radical leader.
Clemenceau confined his political activities to journalism, his career being further overclouded - so far as any immediate possibility of regaining his old ascendancy was concerned - by the long-drawn-out Dreyfus case, in which he took an active and honourable part as a supporter of M.
In it he led the campaign for the revision of the Dreyfus affair, and for the separation of Church and State.
It was his conduct of the Dreyfus case, however, which placed him at the top of his profession and earned him his unique reputation.
Dreyfus was not finally declared innocent until 1906, and Labori never once relaxed his efforts on behalf of the unfortunate officer.
Other notable trials in which he was concerned were the prosecution of Emile Zola for libel (1898), which arose out of the Dreyfus case; the Humbert affair (1902); and the trial of Madame Caillaux for the murder of M.
On the 30th of August, however, he stated that this had been discovered to be a forgery by Colonel Henry, but he refused to concur with his colleagues in a revision of the Dreyfus prosecution, which was the logical outcome of his own exposure of the forgery.
Zola played a very important part in the Dreyfus affair, which convulsed French politics and social life at the end of the 19th century.
At an early stage he came to the conclusion that Dreyfus was the innocent victim of a nefarious conspiracy, and on the 13th of January 1898, with his usual intrepidity, he published in the Aurore newspaper, in the form of a letter beginning with the words J'accuse, a terrible denunciation of all those who had had a hand in hounding down that unfortunate officer.
ALFRED DREYFUS (1859-), French soldier, of Jewish parentage, the scandal of whose condemnation for treason and subsequent rehabilitation convulsed French political life between 1894 and 1899, and only ended in 1906, was born in Miilhausen, Upper Alsace, removing to Paris in 1874.
It was not till the Cour de Cassation ordered a further investigation, and on the 12th of July 1906 decided that his conviction had been based on a forgery and that Dreyfus was innocent, that the agitation came to a final conclusion.
But the anti-Semitic and antiDreyfusard spirit in certain French circles could not easily be quelled even then; and on the occasion of the translation of the remains of Emile Zola (Dreyfus's determined champion) to the Pantheon on the 4th of June 1908, Major Dreyfus was shot at and wounded by a fanatical journalist named Gregori, who was subsequently acquitted by a Paris jury of the charge of attempted murder, his own plea being that he had merely intended a "demonstration."
Here he remained in hiding, writing Fecondite, till the 4th of June 1899, when, immediately on hearing that there was to be a revision of the first Dreyfus trial, he returned to Paris.
He received a public funeral, at which Captain Dreyfus was present.
The time of his death Zola had just completed a novel, Verite, dealing with the incidents of the Dreyfus trial.