M., and it receives the drainage of an area of nearly 502 sq.
The southern outfall works of the London main drainage system are at Crossness in the neighbouring lowland called Plumstead Marshes.
For lack of proper canalization, while much of the harm is also due to the disforestation of the mountains, owing to which the rains collect in the upland valleys, and are brought down by violent torrents, carrying the soil with them, and so impeding the proper drainage and irrigation of these valleys, and encouraging the formation of unhealthy swamps; moreover, the climate has become much more tropical in character.
That it has become one of the healthiest cities in the world from being one of the unhealthiest is attributable in great measure to his insistence on the necessity of sanitary reform, and it was his unceasing efforts that secured for its inhabitants the drainage system, the sewage farms and the good water-supply, the benefits of which are reflected in the decreased death-rate they now enjoy.
The drainage of Manitoba is entirely northeastward to Hudson Bay.
When the attempt was made to mark this boundary the commissioners were unable to agree on a line across the Puna de Atacama in the north, where parallel ranges enclosing a high arid plateau without any clearly defined drainage to the Atlantic or Pacific, gave an opportunity for conflicting claims. In the south the broken character of the Cordillera, pierced in places by large rivers flowing into the Pacific and having their upper drainage basins on the eastern side of the line of highest crests, gave rise to unforeseen and very difficult questions.
The rivers belonging to this inland drainage system are the Vermejo, San Juan and Desaguadero, with their affluents, and their southward flow can be traced from about 28° S.
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
The Bebedero, in San Luis, and Porongos, in Cordoba, and others, are shallow, saline lakes which receive the drainage of a considerable area and have no outlet.
The unhealthiness of the city is chiefly due to want of proper drainage, impure drinkingwater, miasma from the disturbed rubbish heaps, and contaminated dust from the uncleansed roads and streets.
North of the Murchison, Mount Augustus and Mount Bruce, with their connecting highlands, cut off the coastal drainage from the interior; but no point on the north-west coast reaches a greater altitude than 4000 ft.
The so-called rivers have a strong flow only after heavy rains, and some of them do not ever reach the main drainage line.
M., and from this vast expanse not a drop of the scanty rainfall reaches the sea; there is no leading drainage system and there are no rivers.
Broad, believed to encircle a large portion of the inland country, with drainage at one end by a marsh into Spencer Gulf.
Although not the most extensive of the great oceans, the Atlantic has by far the largest drainage area.
Below the confluence the Kabul becomes a rapid stream with a great volume of water and gradually absorbs the whole drainage of the Hindu Kush.
Its sanitary condition, though still defective, was improved by the drainage of the adjacent Almajar Marsh; and after 1870, when the population had dwindled to about 26,000, Cartagena advanced rapidly in size and wealth.
The results areaa lack of water-supply and of water-power, the streams becoming mere torrents for a short period and perfectly dry for the rest of the year; lack of a sufficient supply of timber; the denudation of the soil on the hills, and, where the valleys below have insufficient drainage, the formation of swamps.
The drainage of marshes and marshy lands has considerably extended.
Taxes are not sufficiently proportioned to what the land may reasonably be expected to produce, nor sufficient allowance made for the exceptional conditions of a southern climate, in which a few hours bad weather may destroy a whole crop. The Italian agriculturist has come to look (and often in vain) for action on a large scale from the state, for irrigation, drainage of uncultivated low-lying land, which may be made fertile, river regulation, &c.; while to the small proprietor the state often appears only as a hard and inconsiderate tax-gatherer.
The rise of the Tiber and the flooding of Rome in December 1870 (tactfully used by Victor Emmanuel as an opportunity for a first visit to the new capital) illustrated the imperative necessity of reorganizing the drainage of the city and of constructing the Tiber embankment.
Being sheltered by dense pine-woods on the north, and its malaria having been banished by drainage, it is frequented as a winter resort, and in summer by some thousands for its sea-bathing.
This unhealthy state is frequently combined with etiolation: what is termed rankness is a particular case, and if the factors concerned are removed by drainage, weeding out, free transpiration, &c., no permanent harm may result.
Drought and consequent defoliation result in the same, and these considerations help us to understand how old-established trees in parks, &c., apparently in good general health, become stag-headed by the necrosis of their upper twigs and smaller branches: the roots have here penetrated into subsoil or other unsuitable medium, or some drainage scheme has deprived them of water, &c., and a dry summer just turns the scale.
Excellent examples of the indecisive drainage of a new land surface, on which the river system has not had time to impress itself, are to be seen in northern Canada and in Finland, where rivers are separated by scarcely perceptible divides, and the numerous lakes frequently belong to more than one river system.
In the case of a large hollow in a very dry climate the rate of g evaporation may be sufficient to prevent the water from ever rising to the lip, so that there is no outflow to the sea, and a basin of internal drainage is the result.
The whole of the land which directs drainage towards one river is known as its basin, catchment area or drainage area - sometimes, by an incorrect expression, as its valley or even its watershed.
The river was also canalized, a telephone service introduced, and extensive drainage works carried out.
The general slope of the plateau is toward the N., and the drainage of the state is chiefly through the above-named rivers - the principal tributaries of the Araguaya being the Grande and Vermelho, and of the Upper Tocantins, the Manoel Alves Grande, Somno, Paranan and Maranhao.
A considerable part of southern Goyaz, however, slopes southward and the drainage is through numerous small streams flowing into the Paranahyba, a large tributary of the Parana.
The water supply and drainage systems were introduced by the United States government, which controls the sanitation of the city, but has no other jurisdiction over it.
This upheaval - the consequences of which have been felt even within the historic period, by the drainage of the formerly impracticable marshes of Novgorod and at the head of the Gulf of Finland - together with the destruction of forests (which must be considered, however, as a quite subordinate cause), contributes towards a decrease of precipitation over Russia and towards increased shallowness of her rivers.
Drainage finding no outlet through the thick clay, the soil of the forest region is often hidden beneath extensive marshes, and the forests themselves are often mere thickets choking marshy ground; large tracts of sand appear in the W., and the admixture of boulders with the clay in the N.W.
The shortness of the summer, the deficiency of drainage and the depth to which the soil freezes in winter, are the circumstances which determine the characteristic features of the vegetation of the tundras.
In extent, characterized by wholly interior drainage, a peculiar mountain system and extreme aridity.
- There are three drainage systems within the state.
Corner of the state is the third drainage system.
The yearly payments amount to $2.60 per acre under the present system; this amount covers the cost of maintenance and operation and also of a thorough drainage system, which is as important to the settler as irrigation.
The drainage area is 1132 sq.
The drainage area is 891 sq.
The Sao Francisco forms its northern boundary, and the drainage of the northern part of the state is northward and eastward to that river.
For instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the breeding-grounds and not flying far.
Put comprehensively, it involves the control of the subsoil and surface waters by drainage, the regulation of rivers and floods, suitable agriculture, the clearing of forests or jungles, which tend to increase the rainfall and keep the ground swampy.
The city of Rome is an example of what can be done by drainage; situated in the midst of malaria, it is itself quite healthy.
The suggested causes are (I) reduction of insects by drainage, (2) reduced population, (3) the use of quinine.
The length of its valley (excluding the lesser windings of the river) is about 90 m., and the drainage area about 1300 sq.
The drainage system here, including a water-closet, is of the most complete and modern kind.
The Pontotoc ridge separates the drainage system of the Mississippi from that of the Tombigbee; extending from the northeastern part of the state southward, this ridge divides in Choctaw county, the eastern branch separating the drainage basin in the Pascagoula from that of the Pearl, and the western branch separating the drainage basin of the Pearl from that of the Big Black and the Mississippi.
On the western frontier a northern extension of the great central chain of Goyaz forms the water-parting between the drainage basins of the Sao Francisco and Tocantins, and is known at different points as the Serra do Paranan, Serra de Sao Domingos and Serra das Divisoes.
North and parallel with its course is a low watershed, which separates its drainage basin both from that of the Sao Francisco and from that of the Parnahyba, the northern confluent of the Parana.