If r denotes the radius of curvature of the stream line, so that I dp + dV - dH _ dq 2 q2 (6) p dv dv dv dv - r ' the normal acceleration.
When the motion is irrotational, dq_ _I d deId> G =o, a=-dxy dy, v dy ydx' v 21, ' = o, or dx + dy -y chi, '1/4724, 4 1 1+1 Rx2 = $Rc 2 (ch 2 a1 +I), +h+I Ry2 = 8Rc 2 (ch 2a 1 - I), (6) (7) b2)2/(a2 + b2).
So far these theorems on vortex motion are kinematical; but introducing the equations of motion of § 22, Du + dQ =o, Dv+dQ =o, Dw + dQ dt dx dt dy dt dz and taking dx, dy, dz in the direction of u, v, w, and dx: dy: dz=u: v: w, (udx + vdy + wdz) = Du dx +u 1+..
Thus if T is expressed as a quadratic function of U, V, W, P, Q, R, the components of momentum corresponding are dT dT dT (I) = dU + x2=dV, x3 =dW, dT dT dT Yi dp' dQ' y3=dR; but when it is expressed as a quadratic function of xi, 'x2, x3, yi, Y2, Y3, U = d, V= dx, ' w= ax dT Q_ dT dT dy 1 dy2 dy The second system of expression was chosen by Clebsch and adopted by Halphen in his Fonctions elliptiques; and thence the dynamical equations follow X = dt x2 dy +x3 d Y = ..., Z ..., (3) = dt1 -y2?y - '2dx3+x3 ' M =..
An electrified conductor is a store of energy, and from the definition of potential it is clear that the work done in increasing the charge q of a conductor whose potential is v by a small amount dq, is vdq, and since this added charge increases in turn the potential, it is easy to prove that the work done in charging a conductor with Q units to a potential V units is z QV units of work.
Since the potential of a small charge of electricity dQ at a distance r is equal to dQ/r, and since the potential of all parts of a conductor is the same in those cases in which the distribution of surface density of electrification is uniform or symmetrical with respect to some point or axis in the conductor, we can calculate the potential by simply summing up terms like rdS/r, where dS is an element of surface, o- the surface density of electricity on it, and r the distance from the symmetrical centre.
Since the potential of a conductor is defined to be the work required to move a unit of positive electricity from the surface of the earth or from an infinite distance from all electricity to the surface of the conductor, it follows that the work done in putting a small charge dq into a conductor at a potential v is v dq.
Take any horizontal line and divide it into small elements of length each representing dq, and draw vertical lines representing the potentials v, v', &c., and after each dose.
The element of work done in introducing the quantity of electricity dq at a potential v is represented by the element of area of this triangle (see fig.
Dp n dq n be spoken of as the " extension " of this range of values.
Thus after a time dt the values of the coordinates and momenta of the small group of systems under consideration will lie within a range such that pi is between pi +pidt and pi +dp,+(pi+ap?dpi) dt „ qi +gidt „ qi+dqi+ (qi +agLdgi) dt, Thus the extension of the range after the interval dt is dp i (i +aidt) dq i (I +?gidt).
(16) Let a quantity dQ of energy, measured in work units, be absorbed by the gas from some external source, so that its pressure, volume and temperature change.
The equation of energy is dQ=dE+pdv, (17) expressing that the total energy dQ is used partly in increasing the internal energy of the gas, and partly in expanding the gas against the pressure p. If we take p = RNT/v from equation (14) and substitute for E from equation (16), this last equation becomes dQ 2 (n +3)RNdT +RNTdv (18) which may be taken as the general equation of calorimetry, for a gas which accurately obeys equation (14).
If we divide throughout by T, we obtain d 2 (n+3)RN T +RNd v, showing that dQ/T is a perfect differential.
If the volume of the gas is kept constant, we put dv=o in equation (18) and dQ = JC0NmdT, where C v is the specific Specific heat of the gas at constant volume and J is the mechanical equivalent of heat.
(19) On the other hand, if the pressure of the gas is ke p t constant throughout the motion, T/v is constant and dQ = JC,,NmdT, whence C 5 = z (n +5) R /Jm.
If BN, CP, DQ, FS, GT are the perpen diculars to AE from the angular points, the ordinates NB, PC,..
These circuital relations, when expressed analytically, are then for a dielectric medium of types = (dt + x) (f',g',h')+dt(f,g,h), dR dQ = da dy dz dt' ' I See H.
So that Denoting dx/dt, the horizontal component of the velocity, by q, (49) v cos i =q, equation (43) becomes (50) dq/dt= -r cos i, and therefore by !(48) (51) dq _dq dt ry di - dt di-g' It is convenient to express r as a function of v in the previous notation (52) Cr = f(v), dq _vf(v) di - Cg ' an equation connecting q and i.
Now, since v sec i (54) di sec i dq C f(q sec i)' and multiplying by /dt or q, (55) dx C q sec i dq - f (q sec i)' and multiplying by dy/dx or tan i, (56) dy C q sec i tan dq - f (q sec i) ' also (57) di Cg dq g sec i .f (g sec i)' (58) d tan i C g sec i dq - q.