Douches have a still more powerful action than waves.
There were, in 1907, 76 buildings for schools and 47,968 pupils, while in the evening and holiday classes there were 10,724 older pupils; 2,109,920 free rations and 215,135 paid rations were distributed to 16,526 pupils, and douches were supplied.
They are also employed locally as sprays and douches to the nose, throat, vagina and rectum, for catarrhal conditions of the mucous membranes.
They are generally given in the air, but at Plombieres very simple douches are given under water.
Douches to the spine are much employed for nervous debility, and good effects are also obtained in such cases from the so-called needle-bath, where small streams of water at high pressure are driven against the whole surface of the body.