According to Ross, it should be given promptly, in sufficient doses (up to 30 grains), and should be continued for months.
Given by the mouth glycerin produces purging if large doses are administered, and has the same action if only a small quantity be introduced into the rectum.
Very large doses in animals cause lethargy, collapse and death.
UNICEF has said a program that gives children two large doses a year of vitamin A could all but eliminate VAD, although more frequent, smaller doses would be better.
In toxic doses podophyllin causes intense enteritis, with all its characteristic symptoms, and severe depression, which may end in death.
The now well-known fact that small doses of poisonous substances may act as stimuli to living protoplasm, and that respiratory activity and growth may be accelerated by chloroform, ether and even powerful mineral poisons, such as mercuric chloride, in minimal doses, offers some explanation of these phenomena of hypertrophy, wound fever, and other responses to the presence of irritating agents.
Colchicine is the active principle and may be given in full form in doses of to 1 1 8 grain.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains (i) an extract of the fresh corm, having doses of 4 to i grain, and (2) the Vinum Colchici, made by treating the dried corm with sherry and given in doses of 10 to 30 minims. This latter is the preparation still most generally used, though the presence of veratrine both in the corm and the seeds renders the use of colchicine itself theoretically preferable.
The salicylate of colchicine is stable in water and may be given in doses of about one-thirtieth of a grain.
In larger doses colchicum or colchicine acts as a most violent gastrointestinal irritant, causing terrible pain, colic,vomiting, diarrhoea, haemorrhage from the bowel, thirst and ultimately death from collapse.
Large doses also depress the nervous system, weakening the anterior horns of grey matter in the spinal cord so as ultimately to cause complete paralysis, and also causing a partial insensibility of the cutaneous nerves of touch and pain.
A further curious fact, doubtless of very great significance, but hitherto lacking interpretation, is that the administration of colchicum during an acute attack of gout may often hasten the oncoming of the next attack; and this property, familiar to many gouty patients, may not be affected by the administration of small doses after the attack.
After large doses haematuria has been observed in a few cases.
As in the case of quinine, the administration of small doses of hydrobromic acid often relieve the milder symptoms.
The treatment is the prompt use of emetics, or the stomach should be washed out, and large doses of sodium or magnesium sulphate given in order to form an insoluble sulphate.
The pulse is slowed, the number of beats per minute being actually reduced, under considerable doses, to forty, or even thirty, per minute.
In small doses it therefore tends to relieve pain, if this be present.
The antipyretic action which considerable doses of aconite display is not specific, but is the result of its influence on the circulation and respiration and of its slight diaphoretic action.
In order to reduce the pulse to its normal rate in these cases, without at the same time lessening the power of the heart, the drug must be given in doses of about two minims of the tincture every halfhour and then every hour until the pulse falls to the normal rate.
It is probably never right to give aconite in doses much larger than that named.
By the continuous injections under the skin, in increasing doses, of the toxins of certain pathogenic micro-organisms, such as that of diphtheria, an animal-usually the horse-may be rendered completely refractory to the disease.
Quicklime is best applied, perhaps, in spring at the rate of one ton per acre every six or eight years, or in larger doses-4 to 8 tons - every 15 to 20 years.
In height; its inner bark yields an extractive, juglandin, given as an hepatic stimulant and cathartic in doses of 2-5 grains.
The dose of jalap is from five to twenty grains, the British Pharmacopeia directing that it must contain from 9 to II% of the resin, which is given in doses of two to five grains.
The administration of enormous doses of alcohol is to be condemned strongly.
Small, stimulating doses, and repeated, are good, but stimulation can be more effectively produced by ammonia or strychnine.
Been partially immunized by repeated doses of [that particular] snake-venom.
The continued use of large doses of alcohol produces chronic gastritis, in which the continued irritation has led to overgrowth of connective tissue, atrophy of the gastric glands and permanent cessation of the gastric functions.
The largest amount of alcohol that can be burnt up within the healthy body in twenty-four hours is 12 oz., but it must be consumed in great dilution and divided into small doses taken every four hours.
Let us then suppose that a conductor originally at zero potential has its potential raised by administering to it small successive doses of electricity dq.
It may be given in drachm doses with impunity.
Though ammonium chloride has certain irritant properties which may disorder the stomach, yet if its mucous membrane be depressed and atonic the drug may improve its condition, and it has been used with success in gastric and intestinal catarrhs of a subacute type and is given in doses of io grains half an hour before meals in painful dyspepsia due to hyperacidity.
Large doses of these salts are used to remove fluid in dropsy.
In the stomach potassium salts neutralize the gastric acid, and hence small doses are useful in hyperchloridia.
In large doses it is a dangerous poison, converting the oxyhaemoglobin of the blood into methaemoglobin.
All potassium salts if taken in large doses are cardiac depressants, they also depress the nervous system, especially the brain and spinal cord.
It contains a bitter poisonous principle, picrotoxin, used in small doses to control the night sweats of phthisis.
The usual doses of these salts are from five to thirty grains or more.
Another often successful method of preventing the onset of symptoms of poisoning is to administer small doses of ammonium carbonate with the drug, thereby neutralizing the iodic acid which is liberated in the stomach.
The pharmacopoeial preparations of this acid are a 2% solution, which is given in doses of from two to six minims, the tinctura chloroformi et morphinae cornposita, which contains a half-minim of this solution in each ten minims, and the aqua laurocerasi, which owes its virtues to the presence of this acid, and is of inconstant strength, besides being superfluous.
The stomach must be washed out and large doses of emetics given as soon as possible.
Its nauseous bitter taste may to some extent be concealed by acidifying the solution with dilute sulphuric acid, and in some cases where full doses have failed the repeated administration of small ones has proved effectual.
The usual doses of the oxide and carbonate of magnesium are from half a drachm to a drachm.
Small doses increase the sensibility of touch, sight and hearing; large doses cause twitching of the muscles and difficulty in swallowing; while in overdose violent convulsions are produced.
Ordinary doses have no effect upon the temperature but in overdose the temperature rises during a convulsion.
In progressive lead palsy, beri-beri, and the paralysis following acute alcoholism, fairly large doses are useful.
In dyspnoea due to emphysema, phthisis and asthma, strychnine is of service, given internally in doses of i to 3 minims of the liquor.
Moreover, did it do so, the action upon the human system would be infinitely less harmful than similar doses of copper or of lead.
The price, however, is generally so high that its use is practically nil, except in small doses as a liquid manure for choice pot plants.
Common salt acts as a manure when used in moderate quantities, but in strong doses is injurious to vegetation.
Hyacinths and other bulbs derive benefit from slight doses, while to asparagus as much as 20 lb to the rood has been used with beneficial effect.
Chloroform may be given internally in doses of from one to five drops.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains a watery solution - the Aqua Chloroformi - which is useful in disguising the taste of nauseous drugs; a liniment which consists of equal parts of camphor liniment and chloroform, and is a useful counter-irritant; the Spiritus Chloroformi (erroneously known as "chloric ether"), which is a useful anodyne in doses of from five to forty drops; and the Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinae Composita, which is the equivalent of a proprietary drug called chlorodyne.
It can therefore be administered subcutaneously, in doses of about onehundredth of a grain.
The pharmacopeial tincture may be given in doses of five to fifteen minims, and the infusion has the unusually small dose of two to four drachms - the dose of other infusions being an ounce or more.
In larger doses a remarkable sequel to these actions may be observed.
In small or moderate doses it is a powerful diuretic. Though Heidenhain asserts that rise in the renal blood-pressure has not a diuretic action per se, it seems probable that this influence of the drug is due to a rise in the general blood-pressure associated with a relatively dilated condition of the renal vessels.
In large doses, on the other hand, the renal vessels also are constricted and the amount of urine falls.
In large doses the action of digitalis on the circulation causes various cerebral symptoms, such as seeing all objects blue, and various other disturbances of the special senses.
It must never be prescribed in large doses to begin with, as some patients are quite unable to take it,intractable vomiting being caused.
In the United States the bulb is given in doses of 2-2 drachms in cases of bronchiectasis and phthisis pulmonalis.
Garlic may also be prescribed as an extract consisting of the inspissated juice, in doses of 5-io grains, and as the syrupus allii aceticus, in doses of 1-4 drachms. This last preparation has recently been much extolled in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.
That substance, in small doses, favours the contractile power of muscle.
The official doses of atropine are from to 1+F grain, and the sulphate, which is in general use in medicine, has a similar dose.
The former may be given in doses of an ounce and the latter in doses of a drachm.