The lungs are small and occupy only the dorsal portion of the thoracic cavity.
Tail long, its apical half-clothed on the dorsal surface with long hairs.
These processes stretch across the body cavity to be inserted in the dorsal and ventral middle lines.
This is due to the fact that while young the turgidity and consequent growth are greater in the dorsal side of the leaf, so that it becomes rolled up. As it develops the maximum turgidity and growth change to its upper side, and so it becomes unfolded or expanded.
The ethmoid frequently appears on the dorsal surface between the frontals.
The ventral and anal fins are white, tinged with pale red; and the dorsal, pectoral and caudal tipped with black.
A, Dorsal view; B, mouth organs; C, under side.
(2) Passeres diacromyodi, in which some of the syrinx muscles are attached to the dorsal, and some to the ventral ends, those ends being, so to say, equally treated.
On the other hand, in certain Polychaeta the bundles of setae are so extensive that they nearly form a complete circle surrounding the body; and in the Oligochaet genus Perichaeta (=Pheretima), and some allies, there is actually a complete circle of setae in each segment broken only by minute gaps, one dorsal, the other ventral.
Among the Oligochaeta the dorsal vessel in Dinodrilus and Megascolides is enclosed in a separate coelomic chamber which may or may not communicate with the main coelomic cavity.
Turning to the thorax we find that the first segment (prothorax) is distinct and free, with a wide dorsal sclerite.
S, Opening of segmental tubes (placed by mistake on the dorsal instead of the ventral surface).
It lodges the copulatory organ, and on its dorsal wall lies the bursa Fabricii, an organ peculiar to birds.
It occurs in two different forms. In the Ratitae, except Rhea, it consists mainly of a right and left united half (corpora fibrosa), with a deep longitudinal furrow on the dorsal side, and much resembles the same organ in crocodiles and tortoises.
On the other hand, additional longitudinal trunks are sometimes developed, the chief one of which is a supra-intestinal vessel lying below the dorsal vessel and closely adherent to the walls of the oesophagus in which region it appears.
Among many Oligochaeta the dorsal blood-vessel is partly or entirely a double tube, which is a retention of a character shown by F.
It is possible, however, that those oviducts belong to a separate morphological category, more comparable to the dorsal pores and to abdominal pores in some fishes.
At their opposite ends the dorsal and ventral vessels are probably connected with one another by means of a splanchnic sinus surrounding the stomach.
HAKE (Merluccius vulgaris), a fish which differs from the cod in having only two dorsal fins and one anal.
Beneath the epidermis is a longitudinal layer of muscle-fibres which are separated into four distinct groups by the dorsal, ventral and lateral areas; these are occupied by a continuation of the epidermic layer; in the lateral areas run two thin-walled tubes with clear contents, which unite in the anterior part of the body and open by a pore situated on the ventral surface usually about a quarter or a third of the body length from the anterior end.
In other species, however, a peculiar type of polystely is met with, in which the original diarch stele gives rise to se-called dorsal and ventral stelar cords which at first lie on the surface of the primary stele, but eventually at a higher level separate from it and form distinct secondary steles resembling the primary one.
Dorsal vertebrae frequently have a ventral outgrowth of the centrum; these hypapophyses may be simple vertical blades, I-shaped, or paired knobs; they serve for the attachment of the thoracic origin of the longus collianticus muscle, reaching their greatest development in Sphenisci and Colymbidae.
There is a well-marked processus lateralis anterior (the right and left together equivalent to the mammalian manubrium), which is the product of two or three ribs, the dorsal parts of which reduced ribs remain as cervico-dorsal ribs.
The ulna is curved and rather stout; it articulates with both carpal bones; the cubital quills often cause rugosities on its dorsal surface.
The ventral inner margin of the preacetabular portion of the ilium is attached to the pre-sacral vertebrae, whilst the inner and dorsal margin of the postacetabular portion is attached to the primary sacral and the postsacral vertebrae.
This is chiefly cartilaginous and sends out three processes: the dorsal (s.
Further, according to these muscles being inserted only upon the dorsal, or only upon the ventral, or on both ends of the semi-rings, we distinguish between an-, kat- and diacromyodi.
On the other hand, the diacromyodian type can have been developed only from a strong muscular basis which could split into a dorsal and a ventral mass; moreover, no Passeres are known to be intermediate between those that are diacromyodian and those that are not.
There remains but one logical way, namely, to distinguish as follows: - (i) Passeres anisomyodi, in which the syrinx muscles are unequally inserted, either on the middle or on one end of the semi-rings, either dorsal or ventral.
- Syrinx muscles entirely lateral or attached to the dorsal or ventral corners of the bronchial semi-rings.
- Syrinx muscles of either side attached to the dorsal and ventral corners of the rings.
1, A), are usually convex above, with straight hind margins (dorsa); when the elytra are closed, the two hind margins come together along the mid-dorsal line of the body, forming a suture.
When Hydrophilus dives it carries a supply of air between the elytra and the dorsal surface of the abdomen, while air is FIG.
After eating the contents of the egg, the larva moults and becomes a fleshy grub with short legs and with paired spiracles close to the dorsal region, so that, as it floats in and devours the honey, it obtains a supply of air.
All the fins have a rounded outline; the short dorsal fin is without a spine, but the males possess a very thick and flattened outer ray in the ventral fins.
D.c, Dorsal cirrus.
Thus, among the Oligochaeta there are often a series of dorsal pores, or a single head pore, present also among the Polychaeta (in Ammochares).
The dorsal vessel also communicates with the ventral vessel indirectly by the intestinal sinus, which gives off branches to both the longitudinal trunks, and by tegementary vessels and capillaries which supply the skin and the nephridia.
In the smaller and simpler forms the capillary networks are much reduced, but the dorsal and ventral vessels are usually present.
It has been asserted (and denied) that the cellular rod which is known as the "Heart-body" (Herzkorper), and is to be found in the dorsal vessel of many Oligochaeta and Polychaeta, is formed of cells which are continuous with the chloragogen cells, thus implying the existence of apertures of communication with the coelom.
Setae always present and often very large, much varied in form and very numerous, borne by the dorsal and ventral parapodia (when present).
The prostomium bears often processes, both dorsal and ventral, which in the Sabellids are split into the circle of branchial plumes, which surround or nearly surround the mouth in those tube-dwelling Annelids.
B Acanthodrilus: cp, orifices of sperminal, rarely dorsal, at a math ecae;, oviducal pores; little distance from end male pores; on 17th and 19th of body.
Several specially large contractile trunks in the anterior segments uniting the dorsal and ventral vessels.
The eggs of Cephalodiscus d.mes.,Dorsal mesentery.
The principal trunks consist of a dorsal vessel lying above the gut, and a ventral vessel below the gut but above the nervous cord.
In these forms the bundles of setae are either capilliform or uncinate, and the dorsal setae of the thorax are like the ventral setae of the abdomen.
In many of those ants whose third abdominal segment forms a second " node," the basal dorsal region of the fourth segment is traversed by a large number of very fine transverse striations; over these the sharp hinder edge of the third segment can be scraped to and fro, and the result is a stridulating organ which gives rise to a note of very high pitch.
- A, side view of the head region of Nereis cultrifera; B, dorsal view of the same.