(Leipzig, 1909); and " Dolmens, Tombs of the Giants and Nuraghi of Sardinia," in Papers of the British School at Rome, v.
Rude stone monuments (circles and dolmens) and other prehistoric remains show that Syria must have been inhabited from a very early period.
Agriculture, pottery, weaving, the domestication of animals, the burying of the dead in dolmens, and the rearing of megalithic monuments are the typical developments of man during this stage.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
The most remarkable consist of long avenues of menhirs or standing stones; but there is also a profusion of other erections, such as dolmens and barrows, throughout the whole district.
Dolmens, however, occur in great numbers in Tunisia and the province of Constantine.
Near Frenda (2063), which has largely preserved its old Berber character, are numerous dolmens and prehistoric rock sculptures.
C. Borlase, The Dolmens of Ireland (London, 1897); Dictionnaire archeologique de la Gaule (Paris, 1875); A.
Rohlfs, Reise durch Marokko (1869); Quer durch Afrika (1874-1875); General Faidherbe, Collection complete des inscriptions numidiques (lybiques) (1870), and Les Dolmens d'Afrique (1873); H.
The actual antiquities of Korea are dolmens, sepulchral pottery, and Korean and Japanese fortifications.
The antiquities of Galilee include dolmens and rude stone monuments, rock-cut tombs, and wine-presses, with numerous remains of Byzantine monasteries and fine churches of the time of the crusades.
Navigation could be carried on, or the lake-dwellings themselves be erected, without the use of ropes and cords; and the erection of memorial stones (menhirs, dolmens), at whichever era, and to whatever people these monuments may belong, would be altogether impracticable without the use of strong ropes."