The controversies ' It was in this sense that it was understood by Dollinger, who pointed out that the definition of the dogma would commit the Church to all past official utterances of the popes, e.g.
Dollinger the pope attempted to reconcile, but failed.
1 Dollinger, Akademische Vortrcige (Munich, 1891), ix.
Von Dollinger, Das Kaiserthum Karls des Grossen and seiner Nachfolger (Munich, 1864); F.
Dollinger, Das Papsttum (revised by Janus,.
JOHANN JOSEPH IGNAZ VON DOLLINGER (1799-1890), German theologian and church historian, was born at Bamberg, Bavaria, on the 28th of February 1799.
It was in connexion with this question that Dollinger published his Past and Present of Catholic Theology (1863) and his Universities Past and Present (Munich, 1867).
But the headquarters of the opposition was Germany, and its leader was Dollinger, whose high reputation and vast stores of learning placed him far above any other member of the band of the theological experts who now gathered around him.
When, on the 8th of December 1869, it had actually assembled, the world was kept informed of what was going on in the Letters of Quirinus, written by Dollinger and Huber while the debates of the council were proceeding.
Dollinger, however, was not to be silenced.
But the authority of the council was held by the archbishop of Munich to be paramount, and he called upon Dollinger to submit.
Instead of submitting, Dollinger, on the 28th of March 1871, addressed a memorable letter to the archbishop, refusing to subscribe the decrees.
Dollinger, however, voted against the proposition, and withdrew from any further steps towards the promotion of the movement.
Had Dollinger, with his immense reputation as a scholar, as a divine and as a man, allowed himself to be consecrated bishop of the Old Catholic Church, it is impossible to say how wide the schism would have been.
His refusal lost Bavaria to the movement; and the number of Bavarian sympathizers was still further reduced when the seceders, in 1878, allowed their priests to marry, a decision which Dollinger, as was known, sincerely regretted.
At the latter of these two conferences, when Dollinger was seventysix years of age, he delivered a series of marvellous addresses in German and English, in which he discussed the state of theology on the continent, the reunion question, and the religious condition of the various countries of Europe in which the Roman Catholic Church held sway.
Von Kobell, Conversations of Dr Dollinger (tr.
We may still hold the opinion of Dollinger that it was intended to impress the barbarian Pippin and justify in his eyes the Frank intervention in favour of the pope in Italy; or we may share the view of Loening (rejected by Brunner, Rechtsgeschichte) that the forgery was a pious fraud on the part of a cleric of the Curia, committed under Adrian I., 4 with the idea of giving a legal basis to territorial dominion which that pope had succeeded in establishing in Italy.
- Massarelli, ap. Dollinger, Concil.
Munich University, where Dollinger was professor, became the centre of the opposition to the new dogma, and the "old Catholics" were protected by the king and the government.
Von Dollinger, Beitreige zur polit., kirchl., u.
2); Dollinger (Hippolyt u.
Frazer, The Golden Bough (London, 1900), and Adonis, Attis, Osiris (London, 1906); Georges Lafay, Culte des divinites d'Alexandrie (Paris, 1884); Dollinger, Sectengeschichte des Mittelalters (Munich, 1890); Fr.
Maurice, The Religions of the World (1846); Hardwick, Christ and other Masters (4 vols., 18 5559); Dollinger, The Gentile and the Jew (2 vols., 1863).
The main source for the life of Bellarmine is his Latin Autobiography (Rome, 1675; Louvain, 1753), which was reprinted with original text and German translation in the work of Dollinger and Reusch entitled Die Selbstbiographie des Cardinals Bellarmin (Bonn, 1887).