The most striking difference between Zoroaster's doctrine of God and the old religion of India lies in this, that while in the Avesta the evil spirits are called daeva (Modern Persian div), the Aryans of India, in common with the Italians, Celts and Letts, gave the name of deva to their good spirits, the spirits of light.
The Baltic volunteers were defeated by the Bolsheviks on Dec. 29 at Hintzenberg; and since the agreement made on Dec. 29 by Ulmanis with the German representative, the Socialist Winnig, did not attract a sufficient number of volunteers from Germany for the formation of an Iron Div., Riga fell on Jan.
On the 27th a general move forward took place, the Turks (9th Div.) offering little opposition, and by nightfall the Allies held a line stretching approximately from the north end of Morto Bay to " Gully " beach.
Of the Scarpe the 51st Div., advancing at 9 A.M., occupied Fampoux and Gavrelle with little opposition.
The 3rd Canadian Div., moving off at 4:55 A.M.
Was in possession of the Fresnes-Rouvroy line along its entire front; the 2nd Div., however, despite valiant efforts, was unable to make much progress.
Corps coming in on the right, taking over the 32nd Div., and putting the ist into line on its left, with the 6th and 46th in support.
21 and 22 saw some progress by the latter formation, which was not, however, successful in completing the capture of the outer German defences before the right of its line was taken over by the 27th and 30th U.S. Div., nor were the new arrivals who carried out their first attack in France on the 26th and 27th able to advance the line to any real extent.
The first objective and part of the second were carried on time and without great difficulty, but the left of the ist Canadian Div., swinging to the left against Marquion, was checked for a time, until reinforcements, including units of the 11th Div., came up to complete the capture of the village and its defences.
Further progress was difficult, particularly on the right, where the 4th Canadian Div., which had outstripped the advance of the left of the Third Army, was held up by flanking fire and counter-attacks from the S., and was unable to do more than establish itself on the fourth objective by the evening, with its right thrown back along the Bapaume-Cambrai road.
On the left advancing at 6 A.M., while the 1st Canadian Div., which was farther advanced than they, followed suit only at 8 A.M.
Advanced once more with the object of securing the coveted bridges over the Scheldt canal, to be followed later by the 1st Canadian and 11th Div., which were to clear the peninsula between that canal and the Sensee.
And Blecourt by the 4th Div., but not all these gains could be maintained in face of repeated hostile counter-attacks, and at the end of the day the line ran much as before on the front of these two divisions.
The 3rd Div., overrunning the hostile defences with little difficulty, shortly after midday seized Flesquieres and Ribecourt and established itself east of these villages, where the 62nd Div.
The right division, the 52nd, successfully carried out this operation with a portion of its forces, while other units crossed the canal on the right in conjunction with the 63rd Div., and met with severe resistance.
Corps were able to carry out this programme without serious difficulty; but the Australians again met with stubborn resistance, and at the end of the day, though their right division, the 5th, had cleared the greater part of the Hindenburg reserve line, the 3rd Div., on the left, working up the Hindenburg line from the S., had been able to get no farther than S.
1, when the 3rd Australian Div., after fighting all night, succeeded by a combined attack from W.
Corps also had a successful day; the 32nd Div., advancing in conjunction with the 5th Australian Div., cleared Joncourt and Estrees and breached the Masnieres - Beaurevoir line on a mile front E.
He asked for permission to split the 9th Div., which had been given him as a reserve, and send a brigade to each of the sectors mentioned.
Cadorna was unwilling to break up the 9th Div., and ordered that it should be held in reserve at Schio, within easy reach of the Vallarsa sector, while to reinforce the Tonezza sector he dispatched an additional brigade from the general reserve.
He also detailed the 27th Div., in reserve on the Tagliamento, to be ready as a further reinforcement and formed a further artillery reserve of To heavy batteries.
The 44th Div., freshly returned from Albania, was concentrating at Desenzano, and the 27th still lay on the Tagliamento, where the X.
The 44th Div., which was not ready to move at the beginning of the battle, brought the number of regular battalions up to 142.
The Volturno Bde., of the 10th Div., which was on its way to reinforce another threatened sector, was diverted to the more critical point.
On May r8 the Austrian attacks, supported by very violent artillery fire, broke the front of the Ancona Bde., and the rest of the 35th Div., threatened on the flank, withdrew during the night.
The 35th Div., with its reinforcements from the 9th, came back to the line Monte Aralta (south of the Posina) - Monte Cimone - Barcarola, but the Italian centre was now broken.
Corps was now hammering against the Italian 34th Div., whose position was precarious, and although Etna's Val Sugana troops had held their own against various tentative attacks, they were withdrawn to the second line of defence.
By May 22 the 44th Div., commanded by Gen.
He was later transferred to Camp Funston, where he trained the 89th Div., N.A.
After his return to America he was on the point of embarking with the 89th Div., when he was suddenly assigned to the Western Department, no reason being given.
Corps, whose left wing, the 19th Div., raised to the strength of an army corps, held the lines opposite Tolmino.
Corps (19th Div.) with the IV.
(46th Div.), and the weakest position of all was that held by the right of the 46th Div., who were clinging to the slopes of Mrzli Vrh, completely dominated by the enemy, and badly off for communications with their neighbours.
For this attack he detailed the 22nd Schiitzen Div., followed immediately by a Kaiserjager and a Kaiserschiitzen batt., which were to go straight for the Stol, and by six battalions of the 3rd (Edelweiss) Div., which were to make for the Val Fella by way of the Val d'Ucosa.
Krauss's Bosnians had met with no success against the left wing of the Italian 43rd Div., being driven back by counterattacks after capturing the front lines, but Stein's group had carried all before it.
Stein opened his attack with his right wing, the Austrian both Div., at 7:30 A.M., attacking the Italian 46th between Monte Nero and Vodil Vrh.
When both Stein's initial attacks were under way, the 12th Silesian Div., under the command of Gen.
The righthand column, aided by the strong attacks of the Austrian both Div., pierced the extreme right of the Italian 46th on the E.
Corps, and particularly those backing the 19th Div., were apparently ordered to hold their fire till the word of command came from Corps headquarters.
It was long before he received any news of how the day was going on the front of the 19th Div., and from the beginning of the action he was unable to communicate with his divisions on the left bank.
The right-hand column, which had cut in behind the Italian 43rd Div., was making the task of the Austrian 50th comparatively easy, and brushing aside the spasmodic opposition of such small detachments as came in its way.
Saga had to be abandoned owing to the break farther S., and the 50th Div., or what was left of it, retired into the Val d'Uccea and on to the ridge of the Stol, which was reached later by the remnants of the 43rd, who had held their own bravely, but were in great part cut off when they attempted to come back across the Isonzo.
These evil demons are identical with the old gods of the popular faiththe devas (div)while Mazdao bears the name Ahura, above discussed; whence A.hurarnazda (Ormuzd).
Strength) Div., Army troops.
Div., on the evening of the 22nd, had been tempted to go forward, out of alignment, by the evident tactical advantages of a position farther south.
Of Grevena) facing the Monastir direction, while the remainder, reenforced by the 6th Div., pushed on to Verria, and the 7th Div.
As to the Bulgarian 7th Div., the last thing desired by the Greek headquarters was an energetic advance of this force to forestall them at Salonika.
Army); (b) 4th Div., followed by part of 6th Div.
From this line, in the night, assaults by parts of the two left columns (5th Div.) penetrated to Karakoi on the one hand and halfway to Raklitsa on the other.
Of the Kara Aghach, in the forest of Sujak, between Mahmud Mukhtar's troops and the Bulgarian 5th Div., the latter finally drawing back behind the stream and occupying a line from Chiftlik Teke on the left to Mura Aghach on the right.
Bulgarian Army came into action opposite Lule Burgas (1st Div.) and on and S.
Of the Ergene (loth Div.), while the cavalry returning from Rodosto formed up in advance of the right flank of the 10th Division.
The Turkish garrison was under Hasan Riza Bey, consisted of about 14,000 men (chiefly of the 24th Div.), to which were added, at the last moment, a reserve division from Elbasan under command of Essad, 10,000 strong.
Martinovic (1st Div., 8,000 men and three battalions, 12-cm.
Army's and 3rd Div.'s advance astride the Maritsa and Tunja on Oct.
As already mentioned, the Bulgarian 7th Div., in arriving from the Struma side a few days after the Crown Prince had fought his way into Salonika from the W., had lost no time in publicly claiming ownership, and it was with hardly concealed joy that the Greek Government received and promptly executed a request to transport this division by sea to the Thracian theatre.
Army (Kutinchev) 9th Div.; one brigade each of 5th, 8th, (Vidin - Berkovitsa and 14th Divs.; 13th Div.
1st Div.; main body 5th Div.; main body 14th Div., and one brigade Toth Div.
12th Div., 15th Div., and main body 4th Div.
Volunteer brigade; one brigade 4th Div.; 7th Div., main body 8th Div.; one brigade 3rd Div.; main body 6th Div.; 2nd Div.
Main body 3rd Div.; a volunteer brigade; 11th Div.; one brigade 10th Div., and one brigade 6th Div.
His name is formed from a root div, meaning " bright," which appears in other Aryan languages as a formative part of divine names, such as the Sanskrit Dydus, " sky "; Latin Diovis, Jovis, Diespiter, divus; Old English Tiw; Norse Tyr.