DIU, an island and town of India, belonging to Portugal, and situated at the southern extremity of the peninsula of Kathiawar.
The anchorage is fairly protected from the sea, but the depth of water is only 3 to 4 fathoms. The channel between the island on Diu and the mainland is navigable only by fishing boats and small craft.
Her mark, Ego Godiva Comitissa diu istud desideravi," was found on the charter given by her brother, Thorold of Bucknall - sheriff of Lincolnshire - to the Benedictine monastery of Spalding in 1051; and she is commemorated as benefactress of other monasteries at Leominster, Chester, Wenlock, Worcester and Evesham.
After the middle of the 17th century the Asiatic trade of Portugal practically disappeared, and now only Goa, Daman and Diu are left to her as relics of her former greatness.
They comprised, in Africa, the Cape Verde Islands, St Thomas and Prince's Islands, Portuguese Guinea, Angola and Portuguese East Africa, or Mozambique; in India, Goa, Damaun and Diu; in China, Macao; and in the Malay Archipelago part of Timor.
On the Asiatic mainland the first trading-stations were established by Cabral at Cochin and Calicut (1501); more important, however, were the conquest of Goa (1510) and Malacca (1511) by Albuquerque, and the acquisition of Diu (1535) by Martini Affonso de Sousa.
The defence of Cochin by Duarte Pacheco Pereira in 1504, the defence of Diu (q v.) in 1538 and 1546.
One of the last dramatists of the 16th century belonging to the old school was Simao Machado, who wrote the Comedy of Diu and the Enchantments of Alfea, two long plays almost entirely in Spanish, and full of digressions only made tolerable by the beauty of their lyrics.
All these poems, like the Elegiada of Luis Pereira Brandao on the disaster of Al Kasr, the Primeiro cerco de Diu of the chronicler Francisco de Andrade, and even the AfTonso Africano of Quevedo, for all its futile allegory, contain striking episodes and vigorous and well-coloured descriptive passages, but they cannot compare with The Lusiads in artistic value.
In or before 1530 he left Maillezais, abandoned his Benedictine garb for that of a secular priest, and, as he himself puts it in his subsequent Supplicatio pro Apostasia to Pope Paul III., "per seculum diu vagatus fait."
Within these limits lie the Portuguese settlements of Diu, Damaun and Goa, and the native state of Baroda which has direct relations with the government of India; while politically Bombay includes the settlement of Aden.
After their victory at Diu over the Egyptian fleet their mastery of the Indian Ocean was undisputed, and they proceeded to establish themselves on the coast.
They next took advantage of the decay of the kingdom of Gujarat to occupy Chaul (1531), Bassein with its dependencies, including Bombay (1534), Diu (1535) and Daman (1559) But the inherent vices of their intolerant system undermined their power, even before their Dutch and English rivals appeared on the scene.