Its principal commercial source is the fraction of coal-tar which distils between i 50 and 200° C., in which it was discovered in 1834 by F.
Of mercury it boils at 170° C. In an atmosphere of steam it distils without decomposition under ordinary barometric pressure.
Pure ruthenium tetroxide distils over.
Sodium phenolate is heated in a stream of carbon dioxide in an iron retort at a temperature of 180-220° C., when half the phenol distils over and a basic sodium salicylate is left.
Stannic Chloride, SnC1 4, named by Andreas Libavius in 1605 Spiritus argenti vivi sublimate from its preparation by distilling tin or its amalgam with corrosive sublimate, and afterwards termed Spiritus fumans Libavii, is obtained by passing dry chlorine over granulated tin contained in a retort; the tetrachloride distils over as a heavy liquid, from which the excess of chlorine is easily removed by shaking with a small quantity of tin filings and re-distilling.
The specific heat varies with the temperature, from 0.136 at -39° C. to 0.2029 at 232° C. Silicon distils readily at the temperature of the electric furnace.
These are passed through a vessel surrounded by a freezing mixture and on fractionating the product the hydride distils over as a colourless liquid which boils at 52° C. It is also obtained by the decomposition of lithium silicide with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
(The term " 30% benzol " means that 30% by volume distils below ioo°.) A purer benzol was subsequently required for the manufacture of aniline black and other dye-stuffs.
The mixture consequently distils at the temperature at which the sum of the partial pressures equals that of the atmosphere.
It distils salt from the brine of Reichenhall, whence (22 m.
The liquid is run into the iodine still and gently warmed, manganese dioxide in small quantities being added from time to time, when the iodine distils over and is collected.
Soc. chim., 1888, 50, p. 662) distils the commercial acid, in vacuo, with concentrated sulphuric acid below 75° C.
It distils over as a dark red liquid of boiling point 117° C., and is to be regarded as the acid chloride corresponding to chromic acid, CrO 2 (OH) 2.
The residue is then heated in a current of superheated steam, in which the boric acid volatilizes and distils over.
A purer product is obtained by heating aluminium turnings in a current of dry chlorine, when the chloride distils over.
Well-dried hydroxylamine hydrochloride is dissolved in methyl alcohol and mixed with sodium methylate; a solution of methyldichloramine in absolute ether is then added and an ethereal solution of diazomethane distils over.
Roscoe, pure perchlo: is acid distils over at first, but if the distillation be continued a white crystalline mass of hydrated perchloric acid, HC104 H20, passes over; this is due to the decomposition of some of the acid into water and lower oxides of chlorine, the water produced then combining with the pure acid to produce the hydrated form.
It crystallizes in plates which melt at 120° C., and distils without decomposition.
It forms a colourless syrup, of specific gravity 1.2485 (1 5°/4°), and decomposes on distillation under ordinary atmospheric pressure; but at very low pressures (about i mm.) it distils at about 85° C., and then sets to a crystalline solid, which melts at about 18° C. It possesses the properties both of an acid and of an alcohol.
When attempts are made to push the process beyond 98 °% it is found that the acid which distils over is as strong as that which remains behind.
It crystallizes in large monoclinic prisms which melt at 97.5° C., and distils between 302° and 304° C., practically without decomposition.