This congregation was very much occupied, being empowered to deal with all disciplinary matters concerning both the secular and regular clergy, whether in the form of consultations or of contentious suits; it had further the exclusive right to regulate the discipline of the religious orders and congregations bound by the simple vows, the statutes of which it examined, corrected and approved; finally it judged disputes and controversies between the secular and regular clergy.
Withdrew from this Congregation all disciplinary matters affecting the secular clergy, and limited its competency to matters concerning the religious orders, both as regards their internal affairs and their relations with the bishops.
The disciplinary decisions of the council of Nicaea, for example (can.
They demanded from the Liberal Minister of Education, Marchet, that disciplinary measures should be used against him.
29 seq.) and solemnly bidding them exercise their disciplinary duties.
Rarely has a man been able to carry out his system so completely, though perhaps in these first years he had to take more disciplinary measures than he had intended against the Reds, and granted more favours than was fitting to the Catholics, his allies in December 1848 and December 1858.
The bishop has acquired control of the sacraments, presbyters and deacons acting only under his orders; the episcopate appears as a unit, bishops being bound to respect one another's disciplinary decrees.
Article 17 maintained the independence of the ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in spiritual and disciplinary matters, but reserved for the state the exclusive right to carry out coercive measures.
It is much less certain that the disciplinary reforms which the council, following the example of its predecessors, re-enacted, owed anything to Protestantism, unless indeed the council would have shown itself less intolerant in respect to such innovations as the use of the vernacular in the services had this not smacked of evangelicalism.
The great Sokol union has a membership of over 300,000 in all, and the programme includes not only physical but also moral and disciplinary training, aiming at the production of citizens of character and patriotism.
- Up to about 1100 laymen in the West received the communion in both kinds, and except in .a few disciplinary cases the wine was not refused.
No decisions of a general nature, whether dogmatic or disciplinary, could be made without his consent.
A number of cardinals whose duty it is to interpret the disciplinary Council decrees of the council of Trent, was instituted by Pius IV.
The following list of councils was compiled by John, catholicus about the year 728, and read at the council of Manazkert, when the dogmatic and disciplinary attitude of the Armenian church was defined once and for all: I.
African troops, entirely European and normally consisting of 606 officers time when it would have been impolitic to ask openly for more cavalry, they were little by little trained in real cavalry work, then combined in provisional regiments for disciplinary purposes and at last frankly classed as cavalry.
For this third period, the most important and most considerable of the canonical texts is the body of disciplinary decrees of the council of Trent (1545-1563).
From 1787 onwards, colonial bishops and metropolitans were appointed by letters patent which purported to give them jurisdiction for disciplinary purposes.
In closest connexion with the church is the group of buildings appropriated to the monastic life and its daily requirements - the refectory for eating, the dormitory for sleeping, the common room for social intercourse, the chapter-house for religious and disciplinary conference.
But in all cases the disciplinary authority is evidently the same; we need only note that acts concerning individuals do not claim the force of general law; the legal decisions serve at most to settle matters of jurisprudence, like the judgments of all sovereign courts.
With the reservation of those questions, especially of a dogmatic character, which belong to the Holy Office, and of purely ritual questions, which come under the Congregation of Rites, this Congregation brings under one authority all disciplinary questions concerning the sacraments, which were formerly distributed among several Congregations and offices.
SYNOD OF LAODICEA, held at Laodicea ad Lycum in Phrygia, some time between 343 and 381 (so Hefele; but Baronius argues for 314, and others for a date as late as 399), adopted sixty canons, chiefly disciplinary, which were declared ecumenical by the council of Chalcedon, 451.
Purchas), and since the "Ritualists" refused to bow to this decision, parliament intervened with the Public Worship Regulation Act of 1874, which set up a disciplinary machinery for enforcing the law, and at the same time reconstituted the Court of Arches.
The reason of this measure was no doubt partly disciplinary, Bologna itself having in 1506 passed under the dominion of the papacy.
The disciplinary powers of the archbishop, on the other hand, can scarcely be said to survive.
Since there is no example of the archbishop of York exercising or being reputed to have such disciplinary jurisdiction over his suffragans,' and this right could, according to the canon law cited above, in the middle ages only be exercised normally in concert with the provincial synod, it would seem to be a survival of the special jurisdiction enjoyed by the pre-Reformation archbishop as legatus natus of the pope.
The disciplinary question of clerical marriage is not of the same primary importance as the doctrinal questions involved in the restoration of the cup to the laity, or discussed in the subsequent article on the mass.
In disciplinary matters no emperor since Augustus had been able to keep so strong a control over the troops.
The tone of the passage when compared with the disciplinary methods of the synagogue indicates that its purpose was to introduce elements of reason and moral suasion in place of sterner methods.
It is clear from these illustrations that within the New Testament there is development from spontaneous towards strictly regulated methods; also that the use of excommunication is chiefly for disciplinary and protective rather than punitive purposes.
In 1896 Peters was condemned by a disciplinary court for a misuse of official power, and lost his commission.
Thus " we ought," as Lindsay says, " to see in the disciplinary powers and punishments of the Consistory of Geneva not an exhibition of the working of the Church organized on the principles of Calvin, but the ordinary procedure of the town council of a medieval city.
In 1563, and reorganized by Sixtus V.; its mission is to promote the observation of these disciplinary decrees, to give authoritative interpretations of them, and to reconcile disputes arising out of them.
The colonial office (under the direction of a secretary of state) is divided into (i.) a civil department; (ii.) a military department; (iii.) a disciplinary court.
Some of the Conservative leaders, especially Baron von Stumm, the great manufacturer (one of Bismarcks chief advisers on industrial matters), demanded protection against the teaching of some of the professors with whose economic doctrines they did not agree; pastors who took part in the Christian-Social movement incurred the displeasure of the government; and Professor Delbruck was summoned before a disciplinary court because, in the Preussisc/~e Ja/zrbcher, which he edited, he had ventured to criticize the policy of the Prussian government towards the Danes in Schleswig.
In it he suggested that the following reforms should be carried out, some by administrative order and some by future legislation: (1) time for the payment of fines inflicted for minor offences; (2) disciplinary treatment outside prison for all offenders under 21 years of age; (3) punishment of those guilty of offences not involving moral turpitude to be relieved of all degrading features; (4) the reduction of the period of solitary confinement to a maximum of one month; (5) and the abolition of the ticket-of-leave system.
339 ff.) gives a long series of quotations to this effect from church synods and orthodox disciplinary writers of modern times.
According to Peter the Venerable, Henry's teaching is summed up as follows: rejection of the doctrinal and disciplinary authority of the church; recognition of the Gospel freely interpreted as the sole rule of faith; condemnation of the baptism of infants, of the eucharist, of the sacrifice of the mass, of the communion of saints, and of prayers for the dead; and refusal to recognize any form of worship or liturgy.
The judicial power consists of a Supreme Court of Justice of seven members located in the national capital, which exercises supervisory and disciplinary authority over all the law courts of the republic; six courts of appeal, in Tacna, Serena, Valparaiso, Santiago, Talca and Concepcion; tribunals of first instance in the department capitals; and minor courts, or justices of the peace, in the subdelegacies and districts.
This grade has since been merged in that of chief constable, of whom there are four exercising powers of disciplinary supervision in the metropolitan districts, and a fifth who is assistant in the branch of criminal investigation.
But the expression is most frequently used to designate disciplinary laws, in which case canons are distinguished from dogmatic definitions.
Peter, whose legislative and disciplinary power, by a process of centralization, underwent a slow but uninterrupted development.
As thus defined, the collection contains the following documents: firstly, the eighty-five Apostolic Canons, the Constitutions having been put aside as having suffered heretical alterations; secondly, the canons of the councils of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, Constantinople (381), Ephesus (the disciplinary canons of this council deal with the reception of the Nestorians, and were not communicated to the West), Chalcedon, Sardica, Carthage (that of 4 19, according to Dionysius), Constantinople (394); thirdly, the series of canonical letters of the following great bishops - Dionysius of Alexandria, Peter of Alexandria (the Martyr), Gregory Thaumaturgus, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, Amphilochus of Iconium, Timotheus of Alexandria, Theophilus of Alexandria, Cyril of Alexandria, Gennadius of Constantinople; the canon of Cyprian of Carthage (the Martyr) is also mentioned, but with the note that it is only valid for Africa.
In consequence he was summoned before a disciplinary court, and, together with Haupt and Jahn, dismissed from his professorship.
The garrison consists of between 3000 and 4000 men, inclusive of a disciplinary corps of military convicts.
This edict, it is essential to observe, the responsibility for which rests with a disciplinary congregation in no sense representing the church, was never confirmed by the pope, and was virtually repealed in 1757 under Benedict XIV.
Its principal work was the adoption of fifteen disciplinary canons, which were subsequently accepted as ecumenical by the Council of Chalcedon, 451, and of which the most important are the following: i.
In the West, in the 6th and 7th centuries, besides the original functions of their office, archdeacons had certain well-defined rights of visitation and supervision, being responsible for the good order of the lower clergy, the upkeep of ecclesiastical buildings and the safe-guarding of the church furniture - functions which involved a considerable disciplinary power.
The severity of the disciplinary measures which followed procured a reaction under which Farel and Calvin were banished the city in 1538.
Then came a theological and disciplinary controversy with Virgil, the Irish bishop of Salzburg, who held, among other heresies, that there were other worlds than ours.
This is why, besides the disciplinary measures which regulated the elections, the celebration of divine service, the periodical holding of diocesan synods and provincial councils, are found also decrees aimed at some of the "rights" by which the popes had extended their power, and helped out their finances at the expense of the local churches.
17 ff.) they are regarded as disciplinary; the Yahweh speeches declare man's inability to understand God's dealings; the prosperity of the wicked is nowhere explained.
And museum of morbid anatomy, and was fusing these gains in the laboratory so as to claim for itself, as a special branch of science by virtue of peculiar concepts, its due place and provision - provision in the establishment of chairs and of special laboratories for its chemical and biological subdivisions - clinical medicine, by the formal provision of disciplinary classes, was illustrating the truth of the experience that teaching and research must go hand-in-hand, the one reinforcing the other: that no teacher can be efficient unless he be engaged in research also; nay, that for the most part even the investigator needs the encouragement of disciples.
The penitentials (q.v.), or early collections of disciplinary canons, gave much attention to sacrilege.
The working of collieries in the United Kingdom is subject to the provisions of the Coal Mines Regulation Act 1887, as amended by several minor acts, administered by inspectors appointed by the Home Office, and forming a complete disciplinary code in all matters connected with coal-mining.