During the period under review, from the Reformation to the French Revolution, the old orders went on alongside of the new, and many notable revivals and congregations arose among them: the most noteworthy were the Capuchins among the Franciscans (1528); the Discalced Carmelites of St Teresa and St John of the Cross (1562); the Trappists (q.v.) among the Cistercians (1663); and, most famous of all, the Maurists among the Benedictines of France (1621).
Some of these congregations went in the matter of austerity beyond the original idea of the institute; and so in the 16th century there arose in Spain, Italy and France, Discalced or Barefooted Hermits of St Augustine, who provided in each province one house wherein a strictly eremitical life might be led by such as desired it.
With this object she founded her order, of " Discalced " or barefooted Carmelites; it presently became the refuge of Louise de la Valliere and many another penitent *of rank.
The order of Passionist Fathers, the full title of which is the "Congregation of the Discalced Clerks of the Most Holy Cross and Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ," was founded by St Paul of the Cross (Paolo della Croce, 16941 7 75; canonized 1867) in 1720, but full sanction was not obtained for the order till 1737, when the first monastery was established at Monte Argentario, Orbetello.