Other first-class timbers are koko (Albizzia lebbek), white chuglam (Terminalia bialata), black chuglam (Myristica irya), marble or zebra wood (Diospyros kurzii) and satin-wood (Murraya exotica), which differs from the satinwood of Ceylon (Chloroxylon swietenia).
There were oaks, beeches (scarcely distinguishable from existing species), birches, planes and willows (one closely related to the living Salix candida), laurels, represented by Sassafras and Cinnamomum, magnolias and tulip trees (Liriodendron), myrtles, Liquidambar, Diospyros and ivy.
PERSIMMON, the name given to the fruits of Diospyros virginiana in the United States.
The Chinese and Japanese cultivate another species, the Diospyros Kaki, of which there exist numerous ill-defined varieties.
Boreale) which should not be confounded with the Brazilian Caesalpinia, palo blanco (Lysiloma candida), the cascalote and divi-divi trees (Caesalpinia Cacalaco and C. coriaria), the "zapote chico " (Achras sapota) from which chicle is extracted, " zapote prieto " (Diospyros ebenaster), wild fig, myrtles, bamboos and many of the types already mentioned in connexion with the sub-tropical zone.
The principal timber tree is the ebony (Diospyros ebeneum), which grows to a considerable size.
Americana, Cephalaria tatarica, Cotoneaster pyracantha, Citrus aurantium, Diospyros ebenum, Ficus carica, Illicium anisatum, Ligustrum caucasicum, Punica granatum, Philadelphu.s coronarius, Pyrus salicifolia, Rhus cotinus and six species of Viburnum.
This contains a large variety of hard-wooded and valuable timber trees, including species of Weinmannia (Lalona 1), Elaeocarpus (Voanana), Dalbergia (Vbambbana), Nuxia (Valanirana), Podocarpus, a pine, the sole species in the island (Hetatra),Tambourissa (Amhara), Neobaronia (Harah¢ra), Ocotea (Varongy) and probably ebony, Diospyros sp., &c. The following trees are characteristic of Madagascar vegetation, some of them being endemic, and others very prominent features in the landscape: the traveller's-tree (Urania speciosa), with its graceful crown of plantain-like leaves growing like an enormous fan at the top of a tall trunk, and affording a supply of pure cool water, every part of the tree being of some service in building; the Raphia (rofia) palm (Sagus ruffia); the tall fir-like Casuarina equisetifolia or beef wood tree, very prominent on the eastern coast, as well as several species of screw-pine (Pandanus); the Madagascar spice (Ravintsara madagascariensis), a large forest tree, with fragrant fruit, leaves and bark; a beautiful-leaved species of Calophyllum; and the Tangena (Tanghinia veneniflua), formerly employed as a poison ordeal.
Among the fruits Ettingshausen records Quercus, Liquidambar, Laurus, Nyssa, Diospyros, Symplocos, Magnolia, Victoria, Hightea, Sapindus, Cupania, Eugenia, Eucalyptus, Amygdalus; he suggests that the fruits of the London Clay of Sheppey may belong to the same plants as the leaves found at Alum Bay in the Isle of Wight.