The south-eastern portion of the province consists of high fen resting on diluvial sand.
The essential elements are five 1: diluvial plains, coast marshes, prairies, " bluffs " and " pine-hills " (to use the local nomenclature).
All the rivers of this valley, flowing in deep beds of eroded diluvial tuffs, with a fall as much sometimes as 330 to 660 ft.
The strata near the mountain chains and volcanoes consist of diluvial tuffs.
The principal sea-inlets in the north are the Texel Gat or Marsdiep and the Vlie, which lead past the chain of the Frisian Islands into the large inland sea or gulf called the Zuider Zee, and the Wadden or " shallows," which extend along the shores of Friesland and Groningen as far as the Dollart and the mouth of the Ems. The inland sea-board thus formed consists of low coasts of sea-clay protected by dikes, and of some high diluvial strata which rise far enough above the level of the sea to make dikes unnecessary, as in the case of the Gooi hills between Naarden and the Eem, the Veluwe hills between Nykerk and Elburg, and the steep cliffs of the Gaasterland between Oude Mirdum and Stavoren.
The effect of this industry, however, is to lay bare a subsoil of diluvial sand which offers little inducement for subsequent cultivation.
On the elevated parts of this large continent glaciers were formed, which, proceeding downwards to the lower levels, gave origin to large streams and rivers, the abundant deposits of which formed the diluvial sand and the diluvial clay.
The country is also covered with thick diluvial and alluvial deposits containing gold.
This hilly district contains the most productive land in the province, the soil consisting of diluvial drift or boulder clay.
The main portion of Gelderland north of the Rhine and the Old Ysel forms as it were an extension of the province of Overysel, being composed of diluvial sand and gravel, covered with sombre heaths and patches of fen.
The northern part can best be regarded as a low plateau (once marine sediments) sloping southward, traversed by the large diluvial valleys of the Mississippi, Red and Ouachita rivers, and recut by smaller tributaries into smaller plateaus and rather uniform flat-topped hills.
Along the whole northern rim of Bosnia, as also in the fluvial and Karst valleys (poljes), are found diluvial and alluvial formations, interrupted at one place by an isolated granite layer.
In the hill country on the borders of Ise, Owari, Mikawa and TOtmi, on the one side, and Omi, Mino and Shinano, on the other, granite frequently forms dark grey and much disintegrated rock-projections above schist and diluvial quartz pebbles.