- For a general account of the digestive organs, see Alimentary Canal.
They are metamerically placed, and belong to the same metamere as the digestive caeca, thus alternating with the generative sacs.
Behind the digestive stomach are situated, as usual, intestine and rectum, and the number of kidney (Malpighian) tubes varies from only six to over a hundred, being usually great.
The crop is followed by a proventriculus which, in the higher Hymenoptera, forms the so-called " honey stomach," by the contraction of whose walls the solid and liquid food can be separated, passed on into the digestive stomach, or held in the crop ready for regurgitation into the mouth.
The digestive system has a slender gullet, a large crop and no gizzard; in some Hemiptera the hinder region of the mid-gut forms a twisted loop with the gullet.
The visceral commissure, while still surrounding the digestive tract, becomes looped; its right half, with its proper ganglion, passes to the left side over the dorsal face of the alimentary canal (whence the name supra-intestinal), while the left half passes below towards the right side, thus originating the name infra-intestinal given to this half and to its ganglion.
The digestive tract of Patella offers some interesting features.
They are not merely digestive glands, but are sufficiently wide to act as receptacles of food, and in them the digestion of food proceeds just as in the axial portion of the canal.
Formerly it was said that the head consisted of four the whole digestive tract may be ectodermal.
The genital products develop in intermediate spaces similarly limited by these dissepiments and alternating with the digestive caeca.
The oesophagus is the anterior portion of the digestive canal; its walls are folded longitudinally, comparatively thick and provided with longitudinal muscular fibres.
18, in the Heteronemertines the lateral stems, while entirely uniform all through the posterior portion of the body, no longer individually exist in the oesophageal region, but here dissolve themselves into a network of vascular spaces surrounding this portion of the digestive tract.
Food is imbibed through the skin from the digestive juices of the host in which the Acanthocephala live.
In 1865 Kowalevsky discovered that the organs of respiration consist of numerous pairs of gill-slits leading from the digestive canal through the thickness of the body-wall to the exterior.
For the special pathological details of various diseases, see the separate articles on Parasitic Diseases; Neuro-Pathology; Digestive Organs; Respiratory System; Blood: Circulation; Metabolic Diseases; Fever; Bladder; Kidneys; Skin Diseases; EYE Diseases; Heart Disease; EAR, &c.; and the articles on different diseases and ailments under the headings of their common names.
Thus the digestive function, in its largest sense, is now seen to consist, not only in preparation and supply, but in no small measure also of protective and antidotal conversions of the matters submitted to it; coincidently with agents of digestion proper are found in the circuit of normal digestion "anti-substances" which neutralize or convert peptones in their poisonous phases; an autochthonous ferment, such as rennet for instance, calling forth an anti-rennet, and so on.
The digestive system consists of a simple or bifurcated sac, opening through the mouth by means of a "pharynx bulbosus," adapted to act primarily as a sucker, and secondarily, when drawing blood, as an aspirator.
The parasitic actinula is found attached to the proboscis of the medusa; it thrusts its greatly elongated hypostome into the mouth of the medusa and nourishes itself upon the food in the digestive cavity of its host.
UTeµaxos from UT6pa, a mouth), the bag-like digestive organ which in man is situated in the upper left part of the abdomen.
But whilst in Trematoda a digestive sac is invariably present except in the sporocyst larval stage, the Cestodes possess no trace of this organ at any stage of their development.
A, Dorsal view showing the nervous system and digestive system; a, mouth; b, pharynx; c, d, e, gut; E, post-genital union of two limbs of gut; f, excretory pore; g, vaginal pore; h, j, k, brain and nerves; 1, dorsal nerves; m, ventral nerves; n, adoral sucker; o, posterior sucker; p, hooks on posterior sucker; r, vitello-intestinal duct.
Some of the central cells remain in clumps as "germ-balls," others form a mesenchyma in which "flame-cells" arise; others again give rise to muscles; and at the thicker end of the body, rudiments of the brain and digestive system are observable.
C, A young redia, the digestive tract shaded.
(X 15 after Leuckart.) B, Distomum macrostomum, showing the digestive and the greater part of the genital apparatus with the cirrus protruded.
For internal anatomy, specially the digestive organs, see L.
B, Digestive gland from interior A, B, and C magnified about of pitcher, in pocket-like deI oo diameters.
A number of glands on the interior of the pitcher secrete a plentiful fluid which has digestive properties.
Just below the crown of tentacles, however, the body widens out to form a " head," termed the hydranth (a), containing a stomach-like dilatation of the digestive cavity.
The coenosarc constitutes a system by which the digestive cavity of any one polyp is put into communication with that of any other individual either of the trophosome or gonosome.
Brooks regards these organs as sensory, serving for the sense of balance, and representing a primitive stage of the tentaculocysts of Trachylinae; Linko, on the other hand, finding no nerve-elements connected with them, regards them as digestive (?) in function.
We can distinguish (I) digestive endoderm, in the stomach, often with special glandular elements; (2) circu-, latory endoderm, in the radial and ring canals; (3) supporting endoderm in the axes of the tentacles and in the endodermlamella; the latter is primitively a double layer of cells, produced by concrescence OC-- = w.?"
The fate of these inorganiccompounds has not been certainly traced, but they give rise later on to the presence in the plant of various amino acid amides, such as leucin, glycin, asparagin, &c. That these are stages on the way to proteids has been inferred from the fact that when proteids are split up by various means, and especially by the digestive secretions, these nitrogen-containing acids are among the products which result.
In both these cases the stimulation is followed, not only by movement, but by the secretion of an acid liquid containing a digestive juice, by virtue of which the insect is digested after being killed.
In the structure of the digestive system, beetles resemble most other mandibulate insects, the food-canal consisting of gullet, crop, gizzard, mid-gut or stomach, intestine and rectum.
Eulima, foot well developed, with an operculum, animal usually free, but some live in the digestive cavity of Holothurians.
The liver opens by two ducts into the digestive FIG.
(From Owen.) of the liver or great digestive gland is found in the scorpions, where the axial portion of the digestive canal is short and straight, and the lateral ducts sufficiently wide to admit food into the ramifications of the gland there to be digested; whilst in the spiders the gland is reduced to a series of simple caeca.
Indeed he was so much prepossessed in favour of a classification based on the structure of the digestive organs that he could not bring himself to consider vocal muscles to be of much taxonomic use, and it was reserved to Johannes Muller to point out that the contrary was the fact.
Not only is the coelom thus subdivided, but the enteron (gut, alimentary canal, digestive tube) itself shows indications of three main subsections in continuity with one another: - (I) proboscis-gut (Eicheldarm, stomochord, vide infra); (2) collar-gut (buccal cavity, throat); (3) truncal gut extending from the collar to the vent.
It is very probable that in Scorpio they do not serve merely to secrete a digestive fluid (shown in other Arthropoda to resemble the pancreatic fluid), but that they also become distended by the juices of the prey sucked in by the scorpion - as certainly must occur in the case of the simple unbranched gastric caeca of the spiders.
For the diseases of the stomach in general see Digestive Organs; and for special forms Gastritis, Gastric Ulcer, Dyspepsia, &C.; also Abdomen (Abdominal Surgery).
But, on the ground of their air-bladder being closed, or deprived of a pneumatic duct communicating with the digestive canal, such as is characteristic of the Malacopterygians, they were removed from them and placed with the flat-fishes, or Pleuronectidae, in a suborder Anacanthini, regarded as intermediate in position between the Acanthopterygians, or spiny-finned fishes, and the Malacopterygians.
Within the cytoplasm are found manifestations of functional activity, in the form of digestive vacuoles, granules, fat, glycogen, pigment, and foreign bodies.
I) is in many ways closely allied to the Trematoda, from which, however, it is distinguished by the '- want of a digestive system.
The cilia are lost, the eye-spots disappear, the digestive sac vanishes and the larva becomes a sac or "sporocyst" full of germ-cells.
It has a pharynx and short straight digestive sac: and its mesenchymatous cavities are filled with germ-balls in various stages of development.
Movement flexure is also produced by the coiling of the visceral sac and shell; primitively the latter was bowl-shaped; but the ventral flexure, which brings together the two extremities of the digestive tube, gives the visceral sac the outline of a more or less acute cone.
Digestive System, &c. - L.
It has been proved that the secretion contains a digestive ferment capable of rendering proteid matter soluble.
In Carinella they are generally deficient and the intestine straight; in young specimens of this species, however, they occur, though less regular and more in the form of incipient foldings by which the digestive surface is, increased.
On the ether hand, a survey of the facts of cellular embryology which were accumulated in regard to a variety of classes within a few years of Kovalevsky's work led to a generalization, independently arrived at by Haeckel and Lankester, to the effect that a lower grade of animals may be distinguished, the Protozoa or Plastidozoa, which consist either of single cells or colonies of equiformal cells, and a higher grade, the Metazoa or Enterozoa, in which the egg-cell by " cell division " gives rise to two layers of cells, the endoderm and the ectoderm, surrounding a primitive digestive chamber, the archenteron.